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Formation of 2-chloro-2-methylbutane from 2-methyl-2-butanol:

(Preparation of 1-bromobutane from 1-butanol, 2-chloro-2-methylbutane from 2-methyl-2-butanol)

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For preparation of 1-bromobutane:

Any solid biomass including for example agricultural, city and industrial waste can be used to make synthesis gas using techniques similar to its production from . More recent developments includes a plant in the Netherlands, which is using liquid propane-1,2,3-triol (glycerol), a by-product from the production of , from animal fats and vegetable oils.

Flavouring agent2-Butanol, or sec-butanol, is an organic compound with formula CH3CH(OH)CH2CH3.

Bio-based ethene can be obtained by dehydration of bioethanol using a silica/alumina or alumina catalyst (Figure 3, route 6). The butenes (but-1-ene and but-2-ene) can be produced by either dehydration of (Figure 3, route 7) or by dimerization of bioethene (Figure 3, route 11).

For preparation of 2-chloro-2-methylbutane:

The dimerization of ethene to but-1-ene is carried out by passing heated ethene over a zeolite impregnated with a transition metal complex. A variety of complexes of rhodium, titanium and other metals are used:

Mix 11.1 g NaBr + 10 mL H2O + 10 mL 1-butanol + 10 mL HCl in 100 mL RB flask; mix well while cooling in ice (must be in ice when 10 mL HCl is added), set up apparatus for reflux.

2-butanol synthesis - Boise State University

A mixture of ethene and butene is then heated and passed over a solid catalyst based on organic compounds of molybdenum(IV) and tungsten(IV) (the Schrock catalysts) and organo-ruthenium (II) compounds (the Grubbs’ catalysts), in a (Figure 3, route 13):

Another way to produce propene is via methanol (produced from biomass via synthesis gas), which is an example of the MTO (Methanol To Olefins) process. (Olefin is the older name for the homologous series, alkenes). Methanol can be converted into high purity ethene and propene via dimethyl ether (Figure 3, routes 10 and 9). Methanol vapour is passed over alumina at ca 600 K. An equilibrium mixture of methanol, dimethyl ether and steam is produced, containing about 25% methanol:

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  • 2-METHYL-2-BUTANOL | C5H12O - PubChem

    In the name SN1 or SN2, the S stands for substitution. One part of the starting molecule is replaced by something else.

  • 2-METHYL-2-BUTANOL | C5H12O | CID 6405 ..

    The loss of a proton from the tertiary carbocation gives two products, 2-methyl-1-butene and 2-methyl-2-butene.

  • Grignard Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-2-butanol in Optically ..

    Addition of the HCl to these gives the desired 2-chloro-2-methyl butane.

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Grignard Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-2-butanol in Optically Active Solvents

These main routes are shown in Figure 2, which represents processes that can be used in a biorefinery and provides the structure for the discussion in this unit. The important chemicals now being produced from biomass are discussed, including ethane and propane, ethene and propene and the polymers poly(ethene) and poly(propene), aromatic hydrocarbons, liquid fuels (naphtha, kerosine and diesel), methanol and ammonia.

organic chemistry - Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-2-Butanol …

This mixture of gases is then passed over a bed of a in a form that encourages high selectivity towards alkenes with numbers of carbon atoms from 2 to 8. However, by using a zeolite treated with acid, almost all the alkene produced is propene, this being known as the MTP (Methanol To Propene) process (Figure 3, route 9). The propene is purified by cooling it to a liquid and then subjecting the liquid to fractional distillation.

Butanol is used in the synthesis of 2-butoxyethanol

In this contribution we describe ...Porous metal oxide containing Cu and Ni dopants is an efficient catalyst for the Guerbet coupling of ethanol to 1-butanol.

Search results for 2-butanol at Sigma-Aldrich

Synthesis gas is converted into a hydrocarbon wax (a mixture of long-chain alkanes) by heating it and passing the vapour over a cobalt catalyst (the Fischer-Tropsch process) (Figure 2, route 5). The (SMDS) is a modern development of this process. The hydrocarbon waxes are subsequently catalytically cracked with excess hydrogen () (Figure 2, route 9) to form smaller alkanes, for example:

3-Methyl-2-butanol for synthesis

Note: 1-butanol and sodium bromide are used together as reactants for the first experiment, and 2-methyl-2-butanol and hydrochloric acid are used together as reactants for the second experiment.

Search results for 2 Butanol at Sigma-Aldrich

Although the principal use of bio-oil, produced by the of biomass, is as a fuel, it is also a promising source of chemicals. The bio-oil can be separated by distillation into two components, a lighter fraction and a heavier one (Figure 2, route 8). The lighter fraction can be catalytically cracked (Figure 2, route 11), in a similar way to the cracking of gas oil, to yield a gas, containing alkanes and alkenes and a naphtha-like liquid which can be steam cracked to yield ethene, propene and buta-1,3-diene (Figure 2, route 15). These are all major feedstocks for a variety of important chemicals.

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