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About 50% of the free acid of2,4-D was degraded within 15 days.

(1977)White perch stat 20 50 7.2 free acid 24-h LC50 55.5 Rehwoldt (Roccus americanus) stat 20 50 7.2 free acid 96-h LC50 40 et al.

Occupational exposure to 2,4-D during the production, handling, and use of chlorophenoxy herbicides

Acute LD50 for various 2,4-D products in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus)------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Product Animals Procedure LD50 Acid References (mg/kg bw) equivalent------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2,4-D chick, M & F P.O., in olive oil 541 (358-817) 541 Rowe & Hymas (1954)2,4-D Na salt adult hen P.O., in water 655 646 Loktionov et al.

Both formulations were convertedto 2,4-D free acid within 24 h.

N-fixation by aquatic algae is affected at high concentrations of2,4-D acid (400 mg/litre).

In water 2,4-D, as well as chlorophenol residues resulting from the microbial transformation of 2,4-D, may occur in raw and finished supplies of drinking-water (Faust & Aly, 1963; US EPA, 1976, 1980a; National Research Council of Canada, Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality, 1978; Bovey & Young, 1980; Canada, Health & Welfare, 1980; Shearer & Halter, 1980).

(1984)exposed cultures of a similar nitrogen-fixing, filamentouscyanobacterium (Anabaena cylindrica) to 2,4-D acid at concentrations of0, 100, 500, 700, 1000, or 1500 mg/litre, and examined growth,heterocyst formation, and nitrogen fixation.

(1948) Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on chicks.

N-fixing algae intopsoils appear to be more vulnerable to 2,4-D acid than other algalspecies.

Toxicity of 2,4-D to fish: no-observed-effect levels---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Organism Flow/ Temp Alkali- Hard- pH Formulationc Parameter Water Reference stata (°C) nityb nessb concentration (mg/litre)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pink salmon (fry) stat 10 10-34 free acid 96-h LC0 < 1 Meehan (Oncorhynchus stat 10 10-34 butyl ester 96-h LC0 < 1 et al.

(contd.)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Organism Flow/ Temp Alkali- Hard- pH Formulationc Parameter Water Reference stata (°C) nityb nessb concentration (mg/litre)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mullet (Mugil cephalus) stat ethylhexyl 48-h LC0 10 Butler (1965)White mullet (juvenile) flow sea free acid 48-h LC0 50.0 Butler (Mugil curema) water (1963)Goldfish flow 18.2- 66.7 53.3 7.84 pot.

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  • (1972b) The effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on laying hens.

    2,4-D is available as the free acidbut is used, in agriculture and forestry, in formulations as a salt orester.

  • (1970) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid poisoning in man.

    Other possible minor sources of 2,4-D include the use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB).

  • (1948) Effects of 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetic acid on chicks.

    Little is known about the uptake and subsequent fate of the contaminants of 2,4-D other than 2,4-dichlorophenol.

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(1973) Photodecomposition of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

(1970) [Effects of theherbicides 2,4-D, aminotriazole, atrazine, chlorpropham andchlorfurenol on nucleic-acid biosynthesis in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa.] Weed Res., 10: 172-177 (in German).

(1966) Photodecomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

(1984) Persistence of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) aceticacid and 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid in agricultural andforest soils of northern and southern Ontario.

(1971) Bacterial metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate.

(1980) Effects of some chemicals(2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, coumarin and acenaphthene) on thegreen alga, Oedogonium acmandrium Elfving.

(1973b) Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

(1980) Use of an unsignalled avoidance technique to evaluate the effects of the herbicide 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on goldfish, Philadelphia, American Societyfor Testing and Materials, pp.

(1975) Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

Follow-up studies on groups of industrial workers exposed to chlorophenols, 2,4,5-T, or other chlorophenoxy compounds, and to 2,3,7,8-TCDD or other dioxins, during the manufacture of chlorophenoxy herbicides, have recently been reviewed by Huff et al.

(1962) Polynevrite après usage d'un desherbant: l'acide 2,4-D.

A follow-up was also carried out on 348 railroad workers exposed for less than 45 days during the period 1957 - 72 to the herbicides 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, atrazine, mecoprop, dichloropropionic acid, and amitrole (Axelson & Sundell, 1974).

[Poisoning with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D).] Beitr.

Epidemiological studies In two case-control studies of soft-tissue sarcoma (Hardell & Sundström, 1979; Eriksson et al., 1981) and one of lymphoma (Hardell et al., 1981), exposure to phenoxyacetic acids (mainly 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, and MCPA) was associated with approximately 5-fold increases in the risk of soft-tissue sarcomas.

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