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Watch video · This animation shows the processes of transcription and translation of protein synthesis

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Cellular Level of Organization. Protein Synthesis.

I mean, replicate the strand of DNA on your desk.
MUTATIONS
Mistakes made during DNA replication or protein synthesis called
mutations
.

Read about mutations on your handout.

The key event in protein synthesis is the formation of bonds between adjacent amino acids in the ..

The structural basis for TnaC-mediated translational stalling wasaddressed by obtaining a 5.8-Å cryo-EM map of the ribosome stalled byTnaC and high concentrations of tryptophan (Fig. 8). The cryo-EM datashows that the nascent chain adopts a distinct conformation in the exittunnel. We applied MDFF to obtain an atomic model of the entire ribosomeand the stalling nascent chain (Fig. 8F). The model allowed us to mapthe contacts between TnaC and the exit tunnel, as well as proposepossible communication pathways that would lead to inactivation of thecatalytic center of the ribosome (the so-called peptidyltransferasecenter, or PTC). One of the main findings was that two criticalribosomal residues at the PTC adopt conformations that are incompatiblewith cohabitation by release factors, which catalyze termination ofprotein synthesis.

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: ANIMATION - Google Groups

This binding may then either activate or deactivate a gene resulting in either the synthesis  or  end of synthesis of protein.

is the beginning of protein synthesis and involves assembly of the ribosome, the tRNA that recognizes the start codon, and the mRNA molecule itself, as well as other accessory proteins.

Ribosome: The ribosome’s job is to hold everything in place, as well as form the bonds between amino acids. All cells have ribosomes. Ribosomes are made of RNA and associated proteins, with a small subunit and a large subunit coming together during translation to catalyze protein synthesis.

Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis by the Ribosome

Protein synthesis animation Wesleyan University Learning Objects animation of protein synthesis.



Protein is complete and falls off of the ribosome
Our mug is now not only empty, but it is gone all together
Translation
The second part of protein synthesis is called
translation
.
Now go replicate your DNA!
Well, not really, although your DNA is replicating right now without your help.

Similar to TnaC described above, the peptide SecM exists solely to stallthe ribosome synthesizing it. But unlike TnaC, which also requires thepresence of high levels of trytophan, SecM has an intrinsic stallingcapability. Stalling of the ribosome synthesizing SecM provides time fora downstream RNA helix on the same mRNA strand to unwind. Unwinding ofthis helix then allows for a new ribosome to bind and synthesize anew protein, SecA, a bacterial ATP-driven translocase that aids the passage ofnascent proteins across membranes in conjunction with SecY (see also ). When sufficient levels of SecA have been reached,SecA interacts with the SecM-stalled ribosome to pull on SecM, freeingit and allowing translation to resume (illustrated schematically inFig. 13). SecM, which serves no otherpurpose than to stall the ribosome, is released into the cell anddegraded.

This animation shows the processes of transcription and translation of protein synthesis
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  • Transcript of DNA: Structure, Replication and Protein Synthesis

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    Pharmacologic Inhibition of Prokaryotic Protein Synthesis: Bind 30S aminoglycosides

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300 animation in textbook
Step 2 -
Complimentary bases are added to each strand.

As the strands separate, new nitrogen bases (actually nucleotide units) are added by proteins called
DNA Polymerases.


This continues until both strands are completely copied.
Replication Is Complete
(and more)
When the process is over there are two
exact
copies of the DNA molecule.
Why is it important that the copies be identical?
There are about 100 starting points when a human DNA molecule is copied.
It takes about eight hours to copy a human DNA molecule.
Protein Synthesis
Process of reading DNA instructions and making proteins
.

Protein synthesis (DNA transcription, translation and | …



Protein synthesis
has two stages:
Transcription
and
Translation
Transcription
is the process of making an
RNA
strand from the DNA.
Translation
is the making of
proteins
from the
RNA
code.
Translate means to change "languages" (from nucleic acids to amino acids)
Transcribe means to make a copy of something from one source to another
Transcription
There are three steps to transcription.
Step 1 - a protein known as
RNA polymerase
attaches to a specific part of the DNA molecule
(the promoter)
.
Step 2 - The
RNA polymerase
unwinds and separates the DNA double helix.
Step 3 -
RNA polymerase matches complimentary bases to
one
of the DNA strands.

The nitrogen base
Uracil
binds to
Adenine
rather than
Thymine.

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