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Auxiliary hypothesis example - Leipzig Reisemobilhafen

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Testable Auxiliary Hypotheses - Astronomy Notes

Popper's 'scientific method' requires an infinite number of hypotheses, yet is not robust, fails with existential statements, fails with probabilistic statements and fails in practice anyway due to the necessity of auxiliary assumptions. How has Popper's falsification performed in practice? Newton's gravitational theory, Bohr's theory of the atom, kinetic theory, the Copernican Revolution and the theory of evolution were all falsified, despite being excellent examples of science. Popper's falsification fails in both theory and practice.

an additional auxiliary hypothesis which had not been considered by …

"One of the reasons for this state of affairs is the fact that the Efficient Markets Hypothesis, by itself, is not a well-defined and empirically refutable hypothesis. To make it operational, one must specify additional structure, e.g., investor’ preferences, information structure, business conditions, etc. But then a test of the Efficient Markets Hypothesis becomes a test of several auxiliary hypotheses as well, and a rejection of such a joint hypothesis tells us little about which aspect of the joint hypothesis is inconsistent with the data. Are stock prices too volatile because markets are inefficient, or is it due to risk aversion, or dividend smoothing? All three inferences are consistent with the data. Moreover, new statistical tests designed to distinguish among them will no doubt require auxiliary hypotheses of their own which, in turn, may be questioned."
Lo and MacKinlay (1999), pages 6-7

Efficient Markets Hypothesis: Joint Hypothesis

30/12/2017 · Auxiliary Particle Implementation of the Probability Hypothesis ..

When you plug this information into STATA (which lets you run a White test via a specialized command), the program retains the predicted values, estimates the auxiliary regression internally, and reports the chi-squared test.The figure shows the resulting output, which suggests you should reject the homoskedasticity hypothesis.Although the White test provides a flexible functional form that’s useful for identifying nearly any pattern of heteroskedasticity, it’s not useful for determining how to correct or adjust the model for heteroskedasticity.

That is, becausehypotheses have empirical implications or consequences only whenconjoined with other hypotheses and/or background beliefsabout the world, a failed prediction or falsified empiricalconsequence typically leaves open to us the possibility of blaming andabandoning one of these background beliefs and/or‘auxiliary’ hypotheses rather than the hypothesis we setout to test in the first place.

Order of acquisition - Wikipedia

01/01/2010 · Auxiliary particle implementation of the probability hypothesis ..

Optimal Bayesian multi-target filtering is, in general, computationally impractical owing to the high dimensionality of the multi-target state. The Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter propagates the first moment of the multi-target posterior distribution. While this reduces the dimensionality of the problem, the PHD filter still involves intractable integrals in many cases of interest. Several authors have proposed Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) implementations of the PHD filter. However, these implementations are the equivalent of the Bootstrap Particle Filter, and the latter is well known to be inefficient. Drawing on ideas from the Auxiliary Particle Filter (APF), we present a SMC implementation of the PHD filter which employs auxiliary variables to enhance its efficiency. Numerical examples are presented for two scenarios, including a challenging nonlinear observation model.

"The notion of market efficiency is not a well-posed and empirically refutable hypothesis. To make it operational, one must specify additional structure, e.g., investors’ preferences, information structure, etc. But then a test of market efficiency becomes a test of several auxiliary hypotheses as well, and a rejection of such a joint hypothesis tells us little about which aspect of the joint hypothesis is inconsistent with the data."
Lo (2000) in Cootner (1964), page x

If the hypothesis and auxiliary hypotheses are true, then the observational prediction is true. 3.) The observational prediction is in fact true. 4.)
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  • The Deccan beyond the plume hypothesis - Deccan Traps

    08/07/2014 · A web of auxiliary hypotheses and background assumptions were deployed; ..

  • The Controllers: A New Hypothesis of Alien Abduction

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Campus Directories | Northern Michigan University

One of the reasons for this state of affairs is the fact that the EMH, by itself, is not a well-defined and empirically refutable hypothesis. To make it operational, one must specify additional structure, e.g. investors' preferences, information structure. But then a test of the EMH becomes a test of several auxiliary hypotheses as well, and a rejection of such a joint hypothesis tells us little about which aspect of the joint hypothesis is inconsistent with the data. Are stock prices too volatile because markets are inefficient, or is it due to risk aversion, or dividend smoothing? All three inferences are consistent with the data. Moreover, new statistical tests designed to distinguish among them will no doubt require auxiliary hypotheses of their own which, in turn, may be questioned."
Lo in Lo (1997), page

Intelligent races who are not EARTH HUMANS

The criteria Hempel offered for evaluating the “degrees ofsignificance” of theoretical systems (as conjunctions ofhypotheses, definitions, and auxiliary claims) were (a) the clarityand precision with which they are formulated, including explicitconnections to observational language; (b) thesystematic—explanatory and predictive—power of such asystem, in relation to observable phenomena; (c) the formal simplicityof the systems with which a certain degree of systematic power isattained; and (d) the extent to which those systems have beenconfirmed by experimental evidence (Hempel 1965b). The elegance ofHempel’s study laid to rest any lingering aspirations for simplecriteria of cognitive significance and signaled the demise of logicalpositivism as a philosophical movement.

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