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Substituted benzenes were used in the synthesis of Mannich bases 1 ..

Now that we’ve described DNA and RNA, it’s time to take a look at the process of protein synthesis

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organic synthesis ( CAOS ) is used in organic chemistry and ..

ELIMINATION REACTIONS OF ALKYL HALIDES Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides: Here, loss of hydrogen halide from an organic compound takes place. Since hydrogen halides are strong acids, strong bases are typically used to bring about this elimination reaction. Examples of the bases used are KOH in ethanol, in ethanol of in t-butyl alcohol.

Sigma-Aldrich carries a variety of organic bases that vary in level of basicity

For nursing students, learning organic reactions can be challenging, especially since understanding the details of all reaction mechanisms is not generally listed as a learning outcome in fundamental chemistry courses. As such, nursing students must lower the level of complexity when studying and focus on meeting their specialized needs. Instead of being overwhelmed by the need to memorize completely each individual reaction, students should be encouraged to draw comparisons and recognize similarities between the reactions and the functional groups involved, making these reactions easier to understand as a whole. Several examples of how to comprehend basic organic reactions, especially those closely related to biochemistry, health sciences, and various other aspects of our daily lives, are described here. Without knowing the complete story, we are focused on the key transformation itself: but by linking the key reaction with its biological application, students are better able to understand and remember each reaction (student learning results were provided). We hope that this paper will enhance the learning efficiency for this course and provide a method for nursing students further to interpret and understand the fundamental principles of chemistry.

Synthesis of sulfonates - Organic Chemistry Portal

ELIMINATION REACTIONS OF ALKYL HALIDES Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides: Here, loss of hydrogen halide from an organic compound takes place. Since hydrogen halides are strong acids, strong bases are typically used to …

After separation of the organic and the aqueous layer, the amine can be recovered by addition of a strong base like NaOH or KOH to the acidic extract i.e., lidocaine synthesis. Note that amides are usually not basic enough to undergo the same protonation (pKa of conjugate acid: ~ -0.5).

Most neutral compounds cannot be converted into salts without changing their chemical nature. Many of these neutral compounds tend to react in undesired ways i.e., esters undergo hydrolysis upon contact with strong bases or strong acids. One has to keep this in mind as well when other compounds are removed. For instance, epoxides hydrolyze to form diols catalyzed by acids and bases. Ketones and aldehydes undergo condensation reactions catalyzed by both, acids and bases. Esters also hydrolyze to form carboxylic acids (or their salts) and the corresponding alcohol. In order to separate these compounds from each other, chromatographic techniques are often used, where the compounds are separated based on their different polarities (see Chromatography chapter).

Based on the discussion above the following overall separation scheme can be outlined. Which sequence is the most efficient highly depends on the target molecule. There is obviously no reason to go through the entire procedure if the compound sought after can be isolated in the first step already. Note that many of these steps are interchangeable in simple separation problems.

Although our Chemistry 102 textbooks can often be very helpful when studying and learning the necessary reactions, sometimes students can feel overwhelmed by the sheer volume of the reaction mechanisms introduced in the textbooks. We attempt to alleviate this anxiety by demonstrating to students how many of these reactions are interrelated and how that, if a reaction is learned, the reverse reaction or any similar reactions can be easily remembered. Chemistry textbooks often do not clearly show these relationships, nor are these relationships always reiterated in the classroom. Students can also be confused or discouraged by various example questions given in the textbook if the molecules given are chemically complex. It is helpful to show students that these example reactions can be simplified (and more easily learned) by looking only at the essential “skeleton” of the reaction – the functional groups. This article describes how to help students understand and utilize some important organic reactions without being overwhelmed by the reaction mechanisms.

Ester synthesis by esterification - Organic chemistry

Unusual bases are also used; for example, catalytic amounts of trimethylammonium chloride in the presence of triethylamine is highly effective by virtue of the trimethylamine. But what is the role and mechanism of action of tosyl chloride in organic synthesis?

Based on the principles of molecular biology, in DNA-templated synthesis the templates are analogous to the transcription of DNA into RNA templates and the formation of the synthetic molecule is analogous to the sequence-specific translation of the RNA template into proteins in cells. ; ; ;

Amides are formed by the condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and an amine (primary or secondary amines, or ammonia). Water is formed as a byproduct from the carboxylic acid –OH and the amine –H (Scheme 5). It could be very easy to understand amide formation if you recall the ester formation reaction (Scheme 3). However, unlike ester formation, the amide reaction equilibrium is highly unfavorable for the synthesis of products because a competing acid-base reaction occurs between a carboxylic acid and amine. Many methods are thus used to drive the reaction to the right. For example, either acid chloride or acid anhydride is used as a more reactive carboxylic acid derivative to prepare amides. In a similar way, the amide bond is formed between the carbonyl carbon and the amine nitrogen while the –Cl joins –H to form HCl (when using acid chloride) or the RCOO– joins –H to form a carboxylic acid (when using acid anhydride) (Scheme 5). In addition to learning these concepts in lecture, students engage in laboratory experiments such as the synthesis of nylon from adipoyl chloride and hexamethylemediamine that serve as good strategies to reinforce the concept of amide formation and solidify student understanding of this reaction.

Nucleotides can be synthesized by a variety of means both in vitro and in vivo
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Larock indole synthesis - Wikipedia

Many students (including the author) take a one-semester fundamental chemistry lecture and laboratory course (CHEM 102) that surveys the basics of organic chemistry and biochemistry (Van Lanen, 2000). It is organized around topics of organic chemistry, but with some biological perspective (Miner, 1948; Isom, 2006). This course is often required for students in health-oriented programs, especially the nursing program (at the University of South Carolina, Chemistry 102 is required in the nursing curriculum, as shown ), and it may also serve as a laboratory science for students in other fields of study (Price, 1976; Mamantov and Wyatt, 1978). Emphasis for this course is often placed on selected principles relevant to the understanding of human biological functions and related medical aspects. However, this course is often seen by students as a difficult and professionally irrelevant barrier in pursuing a career in medicine or nursing. Moreover, even though knowing detailed chemical properties of organic molecules is not a main objective for this course, students are required to comprehend some basic organic reactions, especially those closely related to biochemical processes of the human body. Some typical examples are the oxidation of an alcohol, the formation of a disulfide bond, carboxylic acid and amine dissociation, esterification, and amide formation. However, learning organic reactions for non-science major students has often been unpleasant (Rowe, 1983; Burgess and Bino, 1988).

Alcohol Reactivity - Michigan State University

This paper delineates a clear way to learn the fundamentals of organic chemistry and biochemistry for students ranging from those preparing for careers in the health field to non-science majors. It looks in depth at the reactions relevant to the biochemical processes of the human body, such as the reactions involving alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, amides, and disulfides. The objective is to present the subject matter in such a way that peer students can clearly relate it to topics relevant to their particular fields of study. This can be done using mnemonic assists such as acronyms, or by using real-life examples of how these chemical reactions occur in the human body or in the processing of various pharmaceuticals. These methods provide students with concrete and practical examples of how chemistry is used in the medical field, enabling them to have a firmer grasp of the concepts necessary to succeed in the course.

The functional group of the alcohols is the hydroxyl group, –OH

For instance, if the target compound was the base in the system, the extraction with HCl should be performed first. Whatever remains in the organic layer is not of interest anymore afterwards, unless one of the other compounds has to be isolated from this layer as well. If the target compound was an acid, the extraction with NaOH should be performed first. This strategy saves steps, resources and time, and most of all, greatly reduces waste.

Practical Aspects of an Extraction

An extraction can be carried out in macro-scale or in micro-scale. In macro-scale, usually a separatory funnel (on details how to use it see end of this chapter) is used. Micro-scale extractions can be performed in a conical vial or a centrifuge tube depending on the quantities. Below are several problems that have been frequently encountered by students in the lab:

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