and fungi in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) and their ..
and their occurrence on the surface of nanoparticles limit their applications
of silver nanoparticles and their immobilization in the ..
The scope of the present study was based upon exploring the capabilities of fungal strain A. flavus to synthesize AgNPs along with their biomedical application in controlling infectious bacteria. The fungal isolate showed a great deal of capability towards synthesizing AgNPs. In addition, these nanoparticles alone and also in conjugation with various antibiotics proved to be effective in controlling resistant bacteria.
Mechanism of Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis is the phenomena which takes place by means of biological processes or enzymatic reactions. These eco-friendly processes are referred as green and clean technology, and can be used for better synthesis of metal nanoparticles from microbial cells 31. Microorganisms can survive and grow in high concentration of metal ion due to their ability to fight against stress 32. The exact mechanism for the synthesis of nanoparticles using biological agents has not been devised yet as different biological agents react differently with metal ions and also there are different biomolecules responsible for the synthesis of nanoparticles. In addition, the mechanism for intra- and extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles is different in various biological agents 30.
of silver nanoparticles and their immobilization in ..
Furthermore, the use of toxic chemicals and organic solvents during nanoparticles synthesis and their occurrence on the surface of nanoparticles limit their applications. Such drawbacks necessitate the development of clean, biocompatible, nonhazardous, and eco-friendly methods for GNPs synthesis. Consequently, biological systems have been focused on and exploited for the synthesis of nanoparticles 19 providing a safer alternative to physical and chemical methods.
Therefore, based on their enormous biotechnological applications, microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and yeast are regarded as possible eco-friendly “nano-factories” for nanoparticles synthesis.
of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Immobilization in the ..
GNPs are some of the most extensively studied material. These can be easily synthesized, exhibit intense surface plasmon resonance and display high chemical as well as thermal stability 6. A variety of gold structures including rods, triangles, hexagons, octagons, cubes and nanowires can be synthesized by using different techniques 7-10. In biomedicine, GNPs are used in several purposes such as leukemia therapy 11, biomolecular immobilization 12 and biosensor design. The use of GNPs as anti-angiogenesis, anti-malaria and anti-arthritic agents is also reported by 13. Because of the increased demand of gold in many industrial applications, there is a growing need for cost effectiveness as well as to implement green chemistry in the development of new nanoparticles 14.
The methods of biosynthesis can employ either microbial cells or plant extract for production of nanoparticles. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is an exciting recent area to the large repertoire of various methods of nanoparticles synthesis and now, nanoparticles have entered a commercial exploration period. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are presently under intensive study for applications in optoelectronic devices, ultrasensitive chemical and biological sensors and as catalysts 3. Nanoparticles are metal particles and exhibit different shapes like spherical, triangular, rod, etc. Research on synthesis of nanoparticles is the current area of interest due to the unique visible properties (chemical, physical, optical, etc.) of nanoparticles compared with the bulk material 4-5.
Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles via ..
Modifying the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic …
Biosynthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles and their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Publications - University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
This review is concerned with the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts
319 | Peiwen Wu, Yang Yu, Claire E
The synthesis of gold nanoparticles has received considerable attention and has been a focus of research due to their high chemical and thermal stability, fascinating optical, electronic properties, and promising applications such as nanoelectronics, biomedicine, sensing, and catalysis. Different physical and chemical methods for gold nanoparticles synthesis are known but these methods are either expensive or are not eco-friendly due to use of hazardous chemicals, stringent protocol used during the process. These drawbacks necessitate the development of nonhazardous and greener methods for gold nanoparticles synthesis. Therefore, there has been tremendous excitement in the study of gold nanoparticles synthesis by using natural biological system. Microorganisms thus play a very important role in the eco-friendly and green synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The inherent, clean, nontoxic and environment friendly ability of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms, plants system to form the metal nanoparticles is particularly important in the development of nanobiotechnology. This review contains a brief outlook of the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using various biological resources, characterization and their potential application in various fields.
PDF Downloads : Oriental Journal of Chemistry
Nanomedicine is a developing field of science which utilizes the utilizations of nanotechnology as a part of the counteractive action and treatment of infections in human body. Nanosize is one-billionth of a meter i.e. 10-9. It includes researchers from distinctive fields including physicists, scientists, architects and researcher. Nanoparticles made of metals like that of gold and silver have picked up significance because of their applications in the fields of gadgets, material sciences and medications . Among nanomaterials, nanoparticles have been supporting to create frameworks for biomedical designing. Nanoparticles have potential properties, including size, shape, biocompatibility and selectivity in regenerative medication. Also, nanoparticles interface especially with bone cells and tissues, contingent upon their com?position, size, shape and surface properties . As another exploration and innovation boondocks, nanofluids are utilized to upgrade warmth exchange including single - stage warmth exchange, nucleate bubbling warmth exchange, stream bubbling warmth exchange and basic warmth flux.
Special Issues - Molecules - MDPI
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field; this could facilitate the recycling of enzymes and broaden their applications in organic synthesis. Herein, we report the methods for the immobilization of water-soluble and membrane-bound enzymes, and the activity difference between free and immobilized enzymes is discussed. Sialyltransferase (PmST1, from ) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP)-sialic acid synthetase (CSS, from ) were chosen as water-soluble enzymes and expressed using an intein expression system. The enzymes were site-specifically and covalently immobilized on PEGylated-N-terminal cysteine MNPs through native chemical ligation (NCL). Increasing the length of the PEG linker between the enzyme and the MNP surface increased the activity of the immobilized enzymes relative to the free parent enzymes. In addition, the use of a fluorescent acceptor tag for PmST1 affected enzyme kinetics. In contrast, sialyltransferase from (NgST, a membrane-bound enzyme) was modified with a biotin-labeled cysteine at the C-terminus using NCL, and the enzyme was then assembled on streptavidin-functionalized MNPs. Using a streptavidin–biotin interaction, it was possible to immobilize NgST on a solid support under mild ligation conditions, which prevented the enzyme from high-temperature decomposition and provided an approximately 2-fold increase in activity compared to other immobilization methods on MNPs. Finally, the ganglioside GM3-derivative (sialyl-lactose derivative) was synthesized in a one-pot system by combining the use of immobilized PmST1 and CSS. The enzymes retained 50% activity after being reused ten times. Furthermore, the results obtained using the one-pot two-immobilized-enzyme system demonstrated that it can be applied to large-scale reactions with acceptable yields and purity. These features make enzyme-immobilized MNPs applicable to organic synthesis.
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