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Biosynthesis of Lipids and Hydrocarbons in Algae | …

6-1-2018 · Biosynthesis of Lipids and Hydrocarbons ..

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Reconstitution of EPA and DHA biosynthesis in …

These particular glycolipids were later shown to have antibiotic and insecticide properties.

The composition and the structure of a novel phosphatidylinositol-containing glycolipid, now known as membrane anchor, were reported in a protozoan ().

Experiments on Torpedo electric organ led to the suggestion that acetylcholinesterase is anchored to the plasma membrane by one or more phosphatidylinositol molecules linked to a short amino acid sequence at one end of the catalytic subunit of the enzyme (.

First report that fish oils reduced thickening of vein intimal in graft experiments in dogs ().

First published paper in which mutants of were used to elucidate the role of a plant lipid, tr-3-hexadecenoic acid ().

Results from metabolic experiments suggest that 24,25-epoxycholesterol may participate in the regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism in vivo (.

C hemical surveys of Ophrys bee pollinated species have identified floral volatile lipid constituents including various terpenes, alcohols, ketones and carboxylic acids (Borg-Karlson AK et al., Chem Script 1985, 25, 283).

BICH 411 24.1 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids Flashcards | Quizlet

The lipid portion of the endotoxin, lipid A, is chemically distinct from allother lipids in biological membranes and consists of characteristic 3-hydroxyfatty acids, primarily with carbon chain lengths from 10 to 18, attached tohydroxyl and amino groups of a disaccharide backbone. It has been proposedthat 3-hydroxy fatty acid quantification may be employed as biomarkers ofendotoxins and Gram-negative bacterial community in atmospheric aerosols ().

The weight of current evidence is that biosynthesis of DHA …

Biosynthesis of Lipids and Hydrocarbons in Algae

Moushumi Paul was born in Mississippi and raised in Philadelphia, PA. She earned a B.A. in Chemistry from Barnard College in 1999 and is currently in the final stages of completing her Ph.D. in chemistry under the guidance of Prof. Wilfred van der Donk at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Her doctoral work has focused on understanding the enzymes involved in lantibiotic biosynthesis.

It is for this reason that the reconstruction of the n−3 LC-PUFA pathway represents the leading edge of metabolic engineering in transgenic plants—currently up to ten different genes have been stably introduced to different host species (). However, the accumulation of the target fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n−3; abbreviated to EPA) and especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n−3; abbreviated to DHA) have often proved disappointing, despite many attempts to optimise their synthesis (). On one level, this is perhaps unsurprising, since the genes assembled to direct the synthesis of EPA and DHA (represented schematically by the pathway in C) are derived from a diverse set of n−3 LC-PUFA accumulating organisms, predominantly marine microbes such as diatoms and microalgae which form the base of the aquatic food-web. Early attempts to engineer the synthesis of EPA initially resulted in very low levels (), but subsequent iterations increased the levels by at least 10-fold (though also increasing the undesired accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates) (). In both cases, these increases were achieved through the presence of additional enzyme activities, beyond the three primary biosynthetic activities used initially ()—for recent consideration of these and other relevant studies, please consult these reviews (). Certainly, the predictive manipulation of plant seed oil compositions remains still in its infancy.

Synthesis and biosynthesis Synthesis

ABSTRACT. The biosynthetic genes pchDCBA and pchEF, which are known to be required for the formation of the siderophore pyochelin and its precursors salicylate and dihydroaeruginoate (Dha), are clustered with the pchR regulatory gene on the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

As many other nitrogen derivatives of fatty acids (amino acids, hydrazides, acid azides, nitriles, isocyanates, amines), they are of considerable interest and economic importance and have, therefore, been the object of much research and industrial attention mainly in the 50s.

discovered the essentiality of thelong-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) ().

Anderson RJ reported the presence of inositol in lipids of tubercle bacilli ().

First demonstration of the biosynthesis of vitamin A from

6-2-2015 · Reconstitution of EPA and DHA biosynthesis in arabidopsis: iterative metabolic engineering for the synthesis of n-3 LC-PUFAs in transgenic plants.
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    Pathway of the biosynthesis of DHA; TABLES; FDA advice on fish consumption in pregnant and nursing women;

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Tuscany Diet - Biochemistry and Nutrition

Deficiency in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a brain-essential omega-3 fatty acid, is associated with cognitive decline. Here we report that, in cytokine-stressed human neural cells, DHA attenuates amyloid-β (Aβ) secretion, an effect accompanied by the formation of NPD1, a novel, DHA-derived 10,17S-docosatriene. DHA and NPD1 were reduced in Alzheimer disease (AD) hippocampal cornu ammonis region 1, but not in the thalamus or occipital lobes from the same brains. The expression of key enzymes in NPD1 biosynthesis, cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 15-lipoxygenase, was altered in AD hippocampus. NPD1 repressed Aβ42-triggered activation of proinflammatory genes while upregulating the antiapoptotic genes encoding Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Bfl-1(A1). Soluble amyloid precursor protein-α stimulated NPD1 biosynthesis from DHA. These results indicate that NPD1 promotes brain cell survival via the induction of antiapoptotic and neuroprotective gene-expression programs that suppress Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity.

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The lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide antibiotics containing the thioether crosslinks lanthionine (Lan) and 3-methyllanthionine (MeLan) and typically also the dehydroamino acids dehydroalanine (Dha) and (Z)-dehydrobutyrine (Dhb). These modifications are formed by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues to produce the Dha and Dhb structures, and subsequent conjugate additions of Cys residues onto the unsaturated amino acids to form thioether rings (Lan and MeLan). Several of the enzymatic reactions involved in lantibiotic biosynthesis have been reconstituted in vitro in recent years and these systems as well as a general overview of lantibiotic biosynthesis are discussed in this chapter.

Potatoes - The World's Healthiest Foods

N2 - The lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide antibiotics containing the thioether crosslinks lanthionine (Lan) and 3-methyllanthionine (MeLan) and typically also the dehydroamino acids dehydroalanine (Dha) and (Z)-dehydrobutyrine (Dhb). These modifications are formed by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues to produce the Dha and Dhb structures, and subsequent conjugate additions of Cys residues onto the unsaturated amino acids to form thioether rings (Lan and MeLan). Several of the enzymatic reactions involved in lantibiotic biosynthesis have been reconstituted in vitro in recent years and these systems as well as a general overview of lantibiotic biosynthesis are discussed in this chapter.

Arachidonic acid: contents in brief - Tuscany Diet

AB - The lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide antibiotics containing the thioether crosslinks lanthionine (Lan) and 3-methyllanthionine (MeLan) and typically also the dehydroamino acids dehydroalanine (Dha) and (Z)-dehydrobutyrine (Dhb). These modifications are formed by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues to produce the Dha and Dhb structures, and subsequent conjugate additions of Cys residues onto the unsaturated amino acids to form thioether rings (Lan and MeLan). Several of the enzymatic reactions involved in lantibiotic biosynthesis have been reconstituted in vitro in recent years and these systems as well as a general overview of lantibiotic biosynthesis are discussed in this chapter.

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