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Mercury inhibition on lipid biosynthesis in freshwater algae

T1 - Inhibition of starch synthesis results in overproduction of lipids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

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the biosynthesis of storage lipids ..

Separate classes for more complex fatty acids with multiple functional groups (but nonbranched) are designated by the total number of carbon atoms found in the critical biosynthetic precursor.

Modifications of the metabolic pathways of lipid and triacylglycerol production in microalgae

Prenol lipids are synthesized from the 5-carbon precursors isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate that are produced mainly via the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway.[10] The simple isoprenoids (linear alcohols, diphosphates, etc.) are formed by the successive addition of C5 units, and are classified according to the number of these terpene units.

Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols (TAGs) in plants and algae

T1 - Dynamics of Lipid Biosynthesis and Redistribution in the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Under Nitrate Deprivation

N2 - Photosynthetic microalgae have promise as biofuel feedstock. Under certain conditions, they produce substantial amounts of neutral lipids, mainly in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs), which can be converted to fuels. Much of our current knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of algal neutral lipid metabolism derives mainly from studies of plants, i.e. seed tissues, and to a lesser extent from direct studies of algal lipid metabolism. Thus, the knowledge of TAG synthesis and the cellular trafficking of TAG precursors in algal cells is to a large extent based on genome predictions, and most aspects of TAG metabolism have yet to be experimentally verified. The biofuel prospects of microalgae have raised the interest in mechanistic studies of algal TAG biosynthesis in recent years and resulted in an increasing number of publications on lipid metabolism in microalgae. In this review we summarize the current findings on genetic, molecular and physiological studies of TAG accumulation in microalgae. Special emphasis is on the functional analysis of key genes involved in TAG synthesis, molecular mechanisms of regulation of TAG biosynthesis, as well as on possible mechanisms of lipid droplet formation in microalgal cells.

AB - Photosynthetic microalgae have promise as biofuel feedstock. Under certain conditions, they produce substantial amounts of neutral lipids, mainly in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs), which can be converted to fuels. Much of our current knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of algal neutral lipid metabolism derives mainly from studies of plants, i.e. seed tissues, and to a lesser extent from direct studies of algal lipid metabolism. Thus, the knowledge of TAG synthesis and the cellular trafficking of TAG precursors in algal cells is to a large extent based on genome predictions, and most aspects of TAG metabolism have yet to be experimentally verified. The biofuel prospects of microalgae have raised the interest in mechanistic studies of algal TAG biosynthesis in recent years and resulted in an increasing number of publications on lipid metabolism in microalgae. In this review we summarize the current findings on genetic, molecular and physiological studies of TAG accumulation in microalgae. Special emphasis is on the functional analysis of key genes involved in TAG synthesis, molecular mechanisms of regulation of TAG biosynthesis, as well as on possible mechanisms of lipid droplet formation in microalgal cells.

Bio Synthesis of Triacylglycerols | Biosynthesis | Lipid

Lipid metabolism, specially the pathways to fatty acids and TAG biosynthesis, is relatively well understood in plants, but poorly known in algae.

The biosynthesis of oil and its control mechanism have not been characterized in any algae, and understanding the metabolic network is vital to achieve the precise engineering of algae metabolic pathways.

These include octadecanoids and lipids in the jasmonic acid pathway of plant hormone biosynthesis, even though jasmonic acids have lost some of their carbon atoms from the biochemical precursor, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid.

Fatty acids and lipids of marine Algae and the control of their biosynthesis by environmental factors
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  • Variations in the biosynthesis of seed-storage lipids

    " Fatty acids and lipids of marine Algae and the control of their biosynthesis by environmental factors "

  • Mercury Inhibition on Lipid Biosynthesis in Freshwater Algae

    The biosynthesis, function and taxonomic significance ofbranched-chain fatty acids in bacteria have been reviewed ().

  • Distribution of betaine lipids in marine algae

    SphinGOMAP:a web-based biosynthetic pathway map of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids15, 15G (2005)[12] Brown, M.S.

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Schematic representation of lipid biosynthesis in ..

This Concept Map, created with IHMC CmapTools, has information related to: blanks_eukaryotic cell, functions, cytoskeleton consists of, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles vacuoles and vesicles, cell wall lack a cell wall, contains paired, linear chromosomes, has a nuclear membrane, has nucleoli function, chloroplasts description, examples endocytosis and exocytosis, the endomembrane system components nucleus, powered by a concentration gradient; does not require metabolic energy facilitated diffusion, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles the endomembrane system, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles proteasomes, function, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles, powered by a concentration gradient; does not require metabolic energy, long; few in number function, cell wall have a cell wall, Golgi complex description, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles flagella, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) description parallel membranous tubules and flattened sacs surrounding the nucleus and runs throughout the cytoplasm, functions endocytosis

Biosynthesis of complex lipids.

One approach to achieve continuous overproduction of lipids in microalgal "cell factories" relies upon depletion or removal of nutrients that act as competing electron sinks (e. g., nitrate and sulfate). However, this strategy can only be effective for bioenergy applications if lipid is synthesized primarily de novo (from CO 2 fixation) rather than from the breakdown and interconversion of essential cellular components. In the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, it was determined, using 13C-bicarbonate, that cell growth in nitrate (NO 3 -)-deprived cultures resulted predominantly in de novo lipid synthesis (60 % over 3 days), and this new lipid consisted primarily of triacylglycerides (TAGs). Nearly complete preservation of 12C occurred in all previously existing TAGs in NO 3 --deprived cultures and thus, further TAG accumulation would not be expected from inhibition of TAG lipolysis. In contrast, both high turnover and depletion of membrane lipids, phosphatidylcholines (PCs), were observed in NO 3 --deprived cultures (both the headgroups and fatty acid chains), while less turnover was observed in NO 3 - replete cultures. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry mass spectra and 13C labeling patterns of PC headgroups provided insight into lipid synthesis in marine diatoms, including suggestion of an internal pool of glycine betaine that feeds choline synthesis. It was also observed that 16C fatty acid chains incorporated into TAGs and PCs contained an average of 14 13C carbons, indicating substantial incorporation of 13C-bicarbonate into fatty acid chains under both nutrient states.

Lipids in Photosynthesis - University of Manitoba Libraries

Biological lipids usually refer to a broad grouping of naturally occurring molecules which includes fatty acids, waxes, eicosanoids, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, terpenes, prenols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K) and others [1,2,3], in contrast to the other major groupings of biological molecules, namely the nucleic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates (sugars).

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