Biosynthesis of phospholipids in Bacillus megaterium.
It is often equated with survival of the fittest, which is often meant to be the strongest or best adapted individual.
Bacterial aminoacyl phospholipids – Biosynthesis and …
Trotter PJ, Pedretti J, Yates R and Voelker DR (1995) Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cloning and mapping of the gene, heterologous expression and creation of the null allele. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270: 6071–6080.
Most phenotypes that are really physical or functional attributes of an organism are multi factorial, meaning that several genes contribute to its expression.
Phospholipid biosynthesis in some anaerobic bacteria.
N2 - Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major surface molecule of Gram-negative bacteria and consists of three distinct structural domains: O-antigen, core, and lipid A. The lipid A (endotoxin) domain of LPS is a unique, glucosamine-based phospholipid that serves as the hydrophobic anchor of LPS and is the bioactive component of the molecule that is associated with Gram-negative septic shock. The structural genes encoding the enzymes required for the biosynthesis of Escherchia coli lipid A have been identified and characterized. Lipid A is often viewed as a constitutively synthesized structural molecule. However, determination of the exact chemical structures of lipid A from diverse Gram-negative bacteria shows that the molecule can be further modified in response to environmental stimuli. These modifications have been implicated in virulence of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria and represent one of the molecular mechanisms of microbial surface remodeling used by bacteria to help evade the innate immune response. The intent of this review is to discuss the enzymatic machinery involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, transport of the molecule, and finally, those enzymes involved in the modification of its structure in response to environmental stimuli.
AB - Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major surface molecule of Gram-negative bacteria and consists of three distinct structural domains: O-antigen, core, and lipid A. The lipid A (endotoxin) domain of LPS is a unique, glucosamine-based phospholipid that serves as the hydrophobic anchor of LPS and is the bioactive component of the molecule that is associated with Gram-negative septic shock. The structural genes encoding the enzymes required for the biosynthesis of Escherchia coli lipid A have been identified and characterized. Lipid A is often viewed as a constitutively synthesized structural molecule. However, determination of the exact chemical structures of lipid A from diverse Gram-negative bacteria shows that the molecule can be further modified in response to environmental stimuli. These modifications have been implicated in virulence of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria and represent one of the molecular mechanisms of microbial surface remodeling used by bacteria to help evade the innate immune response. The intent of this review is to discuss the enzymatic machinery involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, transport of the molecule, and finally, those enzymes involved in the modification of its structure in response to environmental stimuli.
Phospholipid biosynthesis in some anaerobic bacteria
We have isolated mutants of deficient in OL biosynthesis and complementation of such mutants lead to the identification of two genes ( and ) required for OL biosynthesis. OL-deficient mutants of disrupted either in or show wild type-like growth behaviour and are capable of inducing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the sinorhizobial host plant alfalfa. OlsA shows homology to -acyltransferases while OlsB matches the superfamily fold of acyl-CoA -acyltransferases. Amplification of the genes and their expression in the corresponding OL-deficient mutant demonstrated that both are required for OL biosynthesis. Expression of the gene is essential for the specific incorporation of radiolabeled ornithine into OL and overexpression of OlsB in an -deficient mutant of leads to the transient accumulation of the presumed biosynthetic intermediate lyso-ornithine lipid. Overexpression of OlsB in is sufficient to cause the in vivo formation of lyso-ornithine lipid in this organism and is the cause for a 3-hydroxyacyl-AcpP-dependent acyltransferase activity forming lyso-ornithine lipid from ornithine. These results demonstrate that OlsB is required for the first step of OL biosynthesis, in which ornithine is -acylated with a 3-hydroxy-fatty acyl residue in order to obtain lyso-ornithine lipid. In a second step, lyso-ornithine-lipid is converted to OL by an -dependent -acyltransferase activity that requires acyl-AcpP as the acyl donor ( Fig. 3 ). OL formation in a wild type is increased upon growth under phosphate-limiting conditions. Expression of OlsB from a broad host range vector leads to the constitutive formation of relatively high amounts of OL (12-14% of total membrane lipids) independently of whether strains are grown in the presence of low or high concentrations of phosphate, suggesting that in the formation of OlsB is usually limiting for the amount of OL formed in this organism. ORFs homologous to OlsA and OlsB were identified in many eubacteria and although in the and gene are 14 kb apart, in numerous other bacteria they form an operon.
Kennedy EP and Weiss SB (1956) The function of cytidine coenzymes in the biosynthesis of phospholipides. Journal of Biological Chemistry 222: 193–214.
for the initiation of phospholipids biosynthesis.
21/12/2016 · Langley KE, Yaffe MP, Kennedy EP
This review addresses recent research on prokaryotic biosynthesis of aminoacyl phospholipids and on the role ..
synthesizing phospholipids than do bacteria and ..
The LPs were originally presumed to be simple metabolic intermediates in the de novo biosynthesis of phospholipids.
Protein Lounge: Phospholipid Biosynthesis in E. coli
Biosynthesis of ornithine-containing lipids, a widespread class of bioactive lipids in eubacterial membranes
Phospholipids are diacylglycerol ..
Steroidal Drugs: Steroidal nomenclature (IUPAC) and stereochemistry, Androgens and anabolic agents, Estrogens and Progestational agents, Oral contraceptives, Adrenocorticoids; Drugs acting on the central nervous system: General Anesthetics, Hypnotics and Sedatives, Anticonvulsants, Anti-Parkinsonian drugs, Psychopharmacological agents (Neuroleptics, Anti-depressants, Anxiolytics), Opioid analgesics, Anti-tussives, CNS stimulants; Diuretics; Cardiovascular drugs: Anti-hypertensives, Anti-arrythmic agents, anti-anginal agents, Cardiotonics, Anti-hyperlipedemic agents, Anticoagulants and Anti-platelet drugs; Thyroid and Anti thyroid drugs; Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents; Chemotherapeutic Agents used in bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal, parasitic and other infections, Antibiotics: ß-Lactam, macrolides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, polypeptide antibiotics, fluoroquinolones, Anti-metabolites (including sulfonamides); Anti-neoplastic agents; Anti-viral agents (including anti–HIV); Immunosuppressives and immunostimulants; Diagnostic agents; Pharmaceutical Aids; Microbial Transformations: Introduction, types of reactions mediated by micro-organisms, design of biotransformation processes, selection of organisms, biotransformation process and its improvements with special reference to steroids; Enzyme Immobilization: Techniques of immobilization, factors affecting enzyme kinetics, Study of enzymes such as hyaluronidase, penicillinase, streptokinase, amylases and proteases, Immobilization of bacteria and plant cells.
Different techniques of pharmaceutical analysis, Preliminaries and definitions: Significant figures, Rules for retaining significant digits, Types of errors, Mean deviation, Standard deviation, Statistical treatment of small data sets, Selection of sample, Precision and accuracy, Fundamentals of volumetric analysis: methods of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards: Acid Base Titrations: Acid base concepts, Role of solvents, Relative strengths of acids and bases, Ionization, Law of mass action, Common ion effect, Ionic product of water, pH, Hydrolysis of salts, Henderson-Hasselbach equation, Buffer solutions, Neutralization curves, Acid-base indicators, Theory of indicators, Choice of indicators, Mixed indicators, Polyprotic systems, Polyamine and amino acid systems, Amino acid titrations; Oxidation Reduction Titrations: Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Redox reactions, Strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents, Theory of redox titrations, Redox indicators, Cell representations, Measurement of electrode potential, Oxidation-reduction curves, Iodimetry and Iodometry, Titrations involving cerric ammonium sulphate, potassium iodate, potassium bromate, potassium permanganate; titanous chloride, stannous chloride and Sodium 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol; Precipitation Titrations: Precipitation reactions, Solubility product, Effect of acids, temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate, Argentometric titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate, mercuric nitrate, and barium sulphate, indicators, Methods of end point determination (GayLussac method, Mohr’s method, Volhard’s method and Fajan’s method).
Pathways for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in bacteria.
Metals as cofactors and their significance; Carbohydrate Metabolism: Conversion of polysaccharides to glucose-1-phosphate, Glycolysis, fermentation and their regulation, Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, Metabolism of galactose and galactosemia, Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis, and Pentose phosphate pathway; The Citric Acid Cycle: Significance, reactions and energetics of the cycle, Amphibolic role of the cycle, and Glyoxalic acid cycle; Lipids Metabolism : Oxidation of fatty acids, ß-oxidation & energetics, biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization, biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, Control of lipid metabolism, Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes), phospholipids, and sphingolipids, Biosynthesis of eicosanoids, cholesterol, androgens, progesterone, estrogens corticosteroids and bile acids; Biological Oxidation: Redox-potential, enzymes and co-enzymes involved in oxidation reduction & its control, The respiratory chain, its role in energy capture and its control, energetics of oxidative phosphorylation.
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