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adaptation; C3; C4; CAM; transpiration

Evans J (1989) Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C3 plants. Oecologia 78: 9–19.

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C3 Photosynthesis Plants which use ..

A) C4 and CAM photosynthesis are considered to be coping mechanisms because they occur differently in plants than regular C3 photosynthesis occurs. During photosynthesis, plants lose water. Plants that live in arid climates lose even more water, due to the climate. So, there are C4 and CAM plants that both undergo photosynthesis only at night so that the rate of water loss is much lower.
B) One specific difference between C3 photosynthesis and the C4 and CAM processes is that in C4, an end product is a 4 carbon sugar, whereas in C3 a 3 carbon sugar is produced. Another key difference is that in CAM plants, the stomata are closed during the day, unlike those of the C3. A third specific difference is that when a carbon compound is made in mesophyll cells, in the C4, it is then exported to bundle sheath cells. This step does not occur in C3 photosynthesis.
C) Yes, I do think that C4 and CAM plants undergo photorespiration. I believe this because, they still undergo all of the main steps of the process. They still take in carbon dioxide and convert it into oxygen. Although the rate of this reaction is lowered significantly, due to the circumstances, C4 and CAM plants still go through photorespiration.

Niyogi KK (2000) Safety valves for photosynthesis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 3: 455–460.

Rachel, your response was descriptive and informative, but there are a couple things you could have elaborated on. For example, in Part A, make sure to acknowledge that although the C4 plants open their stomata at night like CAM plants in order to prevent water loss, they can also open their stomata during the day. In Part B, you could have been more specific when discussing the three carbon compound that C3 plants make, 3-phosphoglyceric acid. Despite minor details, your response was very accurate.

In Combining algal and plant photosynthesis.

Your response is correct and well written, but it would be helpful to go into some more detail. In part A, you did not mention that C4 plants use a different photosynthetic pathway than C3 plants, because their photosynthesis occurs in the mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Also, you could have mentioned that C4 plants create a 4 carbon molecule during photosynthesis. All of these things are what allow C4 to cope with the environment. In part C, it would have been helpful to describe in more detail why CAM and C4 plants go through photorespiration by discussing the different enzyme used in the process and the separation of carbon fixation and the Calvin Cycle to decrease the effects of photorespiration. In addition to that, you could have mentioned that the photorespiration rates of C4 and CAM plants are lower than those of C3 plants, although photorespiration still does occur to some degree in these plants.

A) Both C4 and CAM photosynthesis are considered to be coping mechanisms because they function differently from C3 plants due to C4 and CAM plants living in arid climates. This causes the plants to lose more water during the day than C3 plants. The C4 and CAM photosynthesis close their stomata during the day to prevent the loss of water. Stomata exchange gas such as, carbon dioxide, water, and oxygen when it is open. Instead, the C4 and CAM photosynthesis occur during the night when they are less likely to lose water.
B) Although C3, C4, and CAM plants all perform photosynthesis, they have some differences in how the reaction happens. One difference is, C3 plants carry out photosynthesis in a cell called the mesophyll cell. While C4 plants complete photosynthesis in a bundle sheath cell. Another difference is, C3 pants produces a three carbon molecule out of carbon dioxide and C4 plants produce a four carbon molecule. Lastly, C3 plants keep their stomata open during the day allowing them to collect carbon dioxide. Due to CAM plants' climate, they must keep their stomata closed so they do not dry out, as said in part A. Rather than opening it during the day, they open it at night.
C) Photorespiration is also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, using the enzyme, Rubisco, to oxygenate RuBP. Knowing that C4 and CAM plants do release carbon dioxide they do photorespirate. Even though these plants function at night, they still do metabolize through photosynthesis and photorespiration.

C3, C4, and CAM: Adaptations to Climate Change

A) CAM and C4 photosynthesis are considered to be coping mechanisms for plants that live in hot and arid climates. All plants need CO2 to perform photosynthesis and they get it through their stomata. When plants open their stomata they lose water, especially in arid climates. To stop water from leaving the plant during this time, CAM plants only open their stomata at night when it is cooler. C4 plants have the light dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle separated. The light dependent reactions occur in the mesophyll cells and the Calvin cycle takes place in the bundle-sheath cells. Overall, CAM and C4 plants are considered to be coping mechanisms because they both use strategies that allow gas exchange at night to minimize water loss while maximizing carbon intake.

B) There are major differences when comparing C4 and CAM plants to C3 plants. One of the major differences is that C4 creates a four carbon sugar and C3 creates a 3 carbon sugar. Another major difference is that in C4 plants, the four carbon molecule is made in the mesophyll cells and then moves to the bundle-sheath cells whereas in C3 photosynthesis, both processes occur in the mesophyll cells. Finally, the stomata in CAM plants open during the night and close during the day to prevent water loss and in C3 plants they are doing just the opposite.

C) Yes, I do believe that C4 and CAM plants undergo the process of photorespiration. This is because the CO2 is first made into organic acids and then released to the bundle-sheath cells in C4 plants or at night in CAM plants. Oxygen is still being made. The amount of CO2 regulates the rate of photosynthesis and since CAM and C4 have mechanisms to control the intake of CO2, the rates are lower in these plants. Overall, C3, C4, and CAM plants all undergo some level of photorespiration.

It would be helpful to include more detail in part B about the differences in the C3 and C4 or CAM plants. For example, you could have included the fact that, while CAM plants open their stomata at night, they store the CO2 they take in for it to be used during the day. Also, it would benefit your response to part C to explain why C4 and CAM plants undergo photorespiration, and why it occurs at a slower rate. For example, you could have mentioned that C4 and CAM plants use a different enzyme to aid in carbon fixation that the C3 plants, or you should have said that hot climates and closing their stomata at night can cause photorespiration to occur. But overall, your answers were correct!

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Outline the C4 plant photosynthesis cycle ;

A) C4 and CAM plants are considered to be coping mechanisms because they are considered to have photosynthetic adaptations, which allow them to live in the environment they thrive in. C4 plants complete photosynthesis in two types of cells, bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells. They have an alternate mode of carbon fixation, which forms a four-carbon compound instead of a three-carbon compound. CAM plants have palisade cells, which is where they complete photosynthesis. In order to do this, they complete crassilacean acid metabolism(CAM) and produce organic acids, which they store.
B) C3 plants complete photosynthesis differently than C4 and CAM plants. C3 plants rely on their mesophyll cells to complete photosynthesis, whereas C4 plants use bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells and CAM plants use palisade cells. In terms of products, C3 plants produce three-carbon compounds, C4 plants produce four-carbon compounds, and CAM plants produce organic acids. These three plants have different "prime" operation times. C3 plants tend like cool weather, C4 plants favor the warm weather, and CAM plants live in the desert climate, but favor the cooler night conditions, because they open their stomata's at night to save water and prevent CO2 from entering the leaves. Aside from this, C4 plants complete photosynthesis in two cells, but CAM plants use the same cell, but cycle at different times.
C) Photorespiration occurs in both C4 and CAM plants, but happens at a slower rate than that of C3 plants. To complete photorespiration, O2 is consumed, CO2 is fixed, and then it is released. This process drives RUBPcase reactions, which is an example of an enzyme fed reaction. These plants actually produce sugar when completing photorespiration.

Difference Between C4 and CAM Plants | Difference …

As a suggestion, for Part B, maybe you could have provided more detail about the roles of the mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of C4 plants. For example, you could have explained that the Calvin cycle occurs in the bundle sheath and carbon fixation occurs in the mesophyll. Also, I would suggest adding that CAM plants carry out photosynthesis in the mesophyll cell like C3 plants, but at different times of the day.

Difference between C3, C4 and CAM plants | Major …

A) C4 and CAM photosynthesis are coping mechanisms used by plants in arid climates. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide needs to be taken in by the plant, while oxygen is released. Unfortunately, the release of oxygen causes the plant to also lose water, which can become worse in a hotter climate. Too much water loss could cause a plant to die, which is why C4 and CAM plants cope in different ways. To prevent water loss, C4 plants use a different photosynthetic pathway which transfers carbon dioxide into the bundle sheath of plant cells as a 4 carbon molecule. In CAM plants, the stomatas stay closed during the hot day and open at night to collect carbon dioxide and prevent water loss.
B) The process of photosynthesis in C4 and CAM plants differ from that in C3 plants. For example, in C4 plants, photosynthesis occurs in the mesophyll cells and the bundle sheath, while in C3 plants it occurs only in the mesophyll. Also, C3 plants keep their stomata open during the day to collect carbon dioxide. In CAM plants, their stomata are closed during the day and open at night, so they can collect the carbon dioxide and store it until it is able to be used during the day. Another difference, is that in C4 plants, carbon dioxide is converted into a 4 carbon molecule and is transported to the bundle sheath cells, while in C3 plants, carbon dioxide is converted to a 3 carbon molecule and photosynthesis occurs in the mesophyll cells of the plant.
C) Yes, I believe C4 and CAM plants photorespirate. These plants use a different enzyme to aid in the initial fixation of carbon dioxide. This enzyme has a higher affinity for carbon dioxide, which helps reduce the rates of photorespiration. Also, C4 plants are able to separate carbon fixation and the Calvin Cycle, performing these steps in different cell types. Although these adaptations are beneficial to the plants, hot climates can increase photorespiration rates, and photorespiration can occur when plants close their stomata to save water. Ultimately, C4 and CAM plants do undergo photorespiration, though it is usually at a lesser degree than the photorespiration of C3 plants.

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