Call us toll-free

Difference Between C4 and CAM Plants | Difference …

Cam plants take in sunlight(photons) and water(h2o) during the day and release O2 when they perform photosynthesis at night.

Approximate price

Pages:

275 Words

$19,50

C3 C4 CAM Photosynethesis - YouTube

Many plants which live in dry conditions have evolved an alternative carbon fixation pathway to enhance the efficiency of rubisco so that they don’t have to keep their stomata open as much, and thus they run less risk of dying due to dehydration. These plants are called C4 plants, because the first product of carbon fixation is a 4-carbon compound (instead of a 3-carbon compound as in C3 or “normal” plants). C4 plants use this 4-carbon compound to effectively “concentrate” CO2 around rubisco, so that rubisco is less likely re react with O2.

Many CAM plants are true desert plants,growing in shallow, sandy soils with little available water.


These O2 measurements for each plant will be compared to the control.
Results
Question:
Which plant type(C4, C3, Cam), will have the highest rate of photosynthesis over 12 hours of daylight?
In C4 plants, the initial steps of carbon fixation are separated structurally from the calvin cycle, whearas in Cam plants, the two steps occur at separate times but within the same cell.

How C3, C4 and CAM Plants Do Photosynthesis - …


C3: Rice, soybean, wheat, rye, oats,
millet, barley, potato
C4: Maize (corn), sorghum, pearl millet
and sugarcane
CAM: Pineapple, Cactus
Hypothesis:
The C4 plant will have the highest rate of photosynthesis over 12 hours of daylight compared to CAM and C3 plants because C4 plants can thrive in direct sunlight and it uses Pep carboxylase instead of Rubisco.
Experimental Design
There will be one plant of each kind; a soybean plant is a C3 plant, a sugarcane plant is a C4 plant, and a cactus is a Cam plant.
There will be 3 chambers with intense sunlight(50 watts)
shining into all of the chambers equally.


Control: Oxygen % In Chamber
Cam-5.12%
C4-6.10%
C3-8.40%
% of O2 After 12 Hours in Sunlight:
Cam-5.14%
C4-89.17%
C3-48.69%
% of Oxygen change from initial:
Cam-.02%
C4-83.07%
C3-40.29%
Conclusion:
The C4 plant had a much higher rate of photosynthesis than Cam and C3.

05/02/2016 · A comparison of C3, C4 and CAM plants



By Martin Schweig

My first interest in succulent plants developed because of their unique physical differences to most other botanical species. What I did not realize was how different they were in many other aspects of their existence.

Their basic biochemical process is somewhat different from the chemistry of most other plants. To survive in a dry environment with irregular or little rainfall, succulent plants must store water in their leaves, stems or roots. These plants often show specific adaptations in their metabolism.

As we know, plants produce food by photosynthesis, which is the bonding together of carbon dioxide with water to make sugar and oxygen using the sun's energy. Sugar contains the stored energy and serves as the raw material from which other compounds are made.

What I was not aware of is that there are at least three different pathways in which photosynthesis can occur to achieve the same results. They are known as C3, C4 and CAM, because the first chemical made by the plant is a three- or four-chain molecule.

C3 (normal conditions)
C4 (high temperature/high water/high light availability)
CAM (high temperature/low water availability)

CAM stands for crassulacean acid metabolism, after the plant family in which it was first discovered. It is essentially a means of isolating in time the carbon dioxide intake from sunlight-fueled photosynthesis. Acid is stored at night within the plant so that during the day it can be turned into sugars by photosynthesis.

All plants can use C3 photosynthesis, and some are able to use all three types. However, C4 and CAM do not exist in the same plant. It is interesting to note that the only cacti to use C3 photosynthesis is the primitive pereskia.

C4 and CAM photosynthesis are both adaptations to arid conditions, because they are more efficient in the conservation of water. CAM plants are also able to "idle," thus saving energy and water during periods of harsh conditions. CAM plants include many succulents such as Cactaceae, Agavacea, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Liliaceae, Vitaceae (grapes), Orchidaceae and bromeliads.

CAM plants take in carbon dioxide during the night hours, fixing it within the plant as an organic acid with the help of an enzyme. During the daylight hours, CAM plants can have normal C3 metabolism, converting carbon dioxide directly into sugars or storing it for the next day's metabolism for use in the evening.

With the sun's energy during daylight, the stored organic acid is broken down internally with the help of enzymes to release carbon dioxide within the plant to make sugars. The stomata (pores) can be open during the evening when the temperature is lower and humidity relatively higher.

During the day, the stomata can remain closed, using the internally released carbon dioxide and thus sealing the plant off from the outside environment. This is probably a six to 10 times more efficient way to prevent water loss compared to normal plant respiration. This modified effect seems to work best when there is a considerable difference between daytime and nighttime temperatures.

C4 plants can photosynthesize faster under a desert's extreme heat than C3 plants, because they use extra biochemical pathways and anatomy to reduce photorespiration. Photorespiration basically occurs when the enzyme (rubisco) that grabs carbon dioxide for photosynthesis grabs oxygen instead, causing respiration that blocks photosynthesis and thus causes a slowing of the production of sugars.

The majority of plants fall into the C3 category and are best adapted to rather cool, moist temperatures and normal light conditions. Their stomata are usually open during the day.

When conditions are extremely arid, CAM plants can just leave their stoma closed night and day, and the organic cycle is fed by internal recycling of the nocturnally fixed respiratory carbon dioxide. Of course, this is somewhat like a perpetual motion machine, and because there are costs in running this machinery, the plant cannot CAM-idle for very long. This idling does, however, allow the plants to survive dry spells and recover quickly when water is again available. This is quite unlike plants that drop their leaves and go dormant during dry spells.

The following comparison of photosynthesis and respiration may be helpful.


Ca and ea tend to be constant for all plants in a given setting. C4 plants are more water use efficient than C3 because they can maintain a lower Ci than C3 plants without slowing carboxylation. They can do this because of the low Km for CO2 of PEPCase.

Order now
  • C3, C4, and CAM Photosynthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

    The Cam plant would have the highest rate of respiration at night when compared to C4 plants and C3 plants.

  • What is the difference between C3, C4 and CAM ..

    Ratesfor daily carbon assimilation by CAM plants are only about one-half those of C3plants and one-third those of C4.

  • Cam, C3, and C4 Plants and their Rate of Photosynthesis duri

    Hello professor, i think this video, , is very good in explaining the difference among C3,C4 and CAM.

Order now

Chapter 3 (C4, C4, CAM photosynthesis) 1.24.12 …


C4 photosynthesis has evolved among land plants a number of times and there are several versions of it. We will learn the NADP-malic enzyme type, which is present in maize, sugarcane, sorghum, and crabgrass, among others.

C4 and CAM, because the first ..

Maize plants and other NADP-malic enzyme C4 plants have a characteristic architecture of their leaves. The photosynthetic cells are divided into 2 types: mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells. The bundle sheath cells form a ring around the vascular bundles of the leaves. The mesophyll cells are the rest of the photosynthetic cells, more distant from the vascular bundles (See Figure 8.9 in your text for micrographs). Mesophyll and bundle sheath cells differ in their photosynthetic machinery, as described below:

Difference between C3 and C4 Plants ..

The C4 path is illustrated in your text in figure 8.11. To summarize, in the mesophyll cells of C4 plants, the carboxylating enzyme PEPCase combines CO2 with phosphoenolpyruvate, yielding oxaloacetate, a 4 carbon compound. This is how C4 photosynthesis gets its name. The first product of carboxylation is a 4 carbon compound. (The first stable product of carboxylation in C3 plants is 3PGA, a 3 carbon compound).

Comparison of C3, C4 and CAM ..


RUBISCO and the Calvin cycle are present in the chloroplasts of the bundle sheath cells of C4 plants. CO2 levels in the bundle sheath chloroplasts are roughly 10 times the air level because of the release of CO2 from malate. Also, oxygen is relatively low in bundle sheath chloroplasts because of the absence of PS II. The high ratio of CO2 to oxygen in the bundle sheath cells prevents the oxygenation reaction of RUBISCO and the processing of 2 phosphoglycolate is thus unnecessary. C4 plants exhibit no detectable photorespiration.

Order now
  • Kim

    "I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."

  • Paul

    "Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."

  • Ellen

    "Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."

  • Joyce

    "Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."

  • Albert

    "Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."

  • Mary

    "Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."

Ready to tackle your homework?

Place an order