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plants and algae can undergo photosynthesis ..

The underwater plants take up the inorganic carbon and use it in the Calvin cycle, the dark reactions of photosynthesis.

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Why do plants carry on photosynthesis in the dark

As with previous Epochal Events, the advances in mental achievement were as dramatic as material changes. However, other than the , humans largely possessed the same cognitive equipment. If an infant girl from the that left Africa could have been placed in a home in an industrialized nation today, there is little reason to believe that she would not live a normal life. The changes in mental achievement during the journeys of have had little to do with biological changes and, in fact, in the past 30,000 years. Humanity’s material and mental changes were thoroughly interrelated. The human world became vastly more complex with the rise of industrialization, so much so that most people today have very little understanding of how their world actually works. It usually takes systems thinkers with scientific training to to understand the modern world’s complexities. For instance, about 95% of Americans are scientifically illiterate and have little idea where their energy comes from or how the myriad moving parts of their civilizations operate and interact. Americans are effective and are , and the rest of the industrialized world is close behind, but they have little idea where any of it comes from or how it was produced and delivered to them.

factors that limit the ability of plants to undergo photosynthesis include the ..

I think this because the plant may use up all of the carbon dioxide (Sodium hydro carbonate) and the plant can have as much light as it needs but if it does not have any carbon dioxide it will not be able to photosynthesise....

Can a plant undergo photosynthesis in the dark

They grow in the dark understory of the forest, and are often found at the base of photosynthetic coniferous trees.

A mass extinction began when humans left Africa and with ancestors of , but it accelerated when that founder group of behaviorally modern humans . They quickly drove the , as well as the and . Once the inhabitable continents were filled with that founder group’s descendants, , humans independently domesticated plants and animals. The mass extinction continued with the Domestication Revolution, but in less spectacular fashion, usually via habitat destruction. The increasing density of human populations became the primary factor in driving other species to extinction, which were often local extinctions. Ancient and particularly drove north-African megafauna to extinction, but there were few other notable mass extinctions until . When they did, the greatest proportional demographic catastrophes since the extinction of all other human species began. Those same three continents earlier robbed of their megafauna were quickly shorn of their human populations, who were and and in the Americas. In the midst of that unprecedented disaster for , . Although industrialization raised the human standard of living as never before, as the energy of hydrocarbon fuels was exploited on a large scale for the first time, it also enabled greater environmental devastation. Humanity has been turning forests into deserts since the first civilizations (, , , , , , , , , ), and the only reason it has not gotten worse during the industrial era, at least in industrialized, nations, is because hydrocarbons instead of wood were burned. The extinction of the , in the midst of , were indicative of the vast damage that industrialized peoples could inflict on Earth’s ecosystems. Industrialization also accelerated Europe’s conquest of the world. It conquered and subjugated and peoples, reducing them to effective slavery and further devastating the ecosystems.

All of those hard-to-believe events aside, I became a student of genius while under my first professional mentor’s tutelage. The sold me on him (as well as that voice leading me to him), but when I to help rebuild his effort, it quickly became evident that I was learning from another world-class genius, and I avidly studied his efforts. As far as I know, is the greatest attempt yet made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace. He probably did his most interesting work before I met him. He invented the , and his were awe-inspiring. Dennis was an untrained businessman, but his ability to erect a disruptive energy technology company with no capital and create the entire process, from developing the technology to building it, marketing it, and installing it, is the best that I have ever seen or heard of, and his public image rarely even touched upon his unparalleled talent in that area. Yet those abilities paled beside his other qualifications, which . That voice knew what it was doing in leading me to Dennis, but playing Indiana Jones’s sidekick was not an easy ride, and I have generally rejected Dennis’s entreaties to rejoin him after I . Even as I write this, I know that our story seems ridiculously fanciful, but it all happened and more, with connections and events I am not at liberty to publicly disclose that makes journey resemble . As dramatic as those events were, our focus was always on bringing FE to the world.

Plants that can grow in the dark

As plants respire both night and day this starch is often used up during the night when photosynthesis cannot take place....

I do not like the spray painted plants. How are the plants going to survive with the paint covering them? Can they photosynthesize? Anyway, I think the natural plants are still pretty.

I don’t see how this is an improvement on the original colour. I mean black…with glitter! Who does that?! Who would buy this really? I assume that is why this was done – for sales right? All sides of the leaves were painted, top and bottom. At least they left a few leaves intact so the poor plant can undergo photosynthesis.

At night, plants go through a process called dark photosynthesis which means that it can't.
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  • a plant which can bypass the PSII for doing photosynthesis.

    15/11/2007 · In conclusion, plants can undergo both photosynthesis and cellular respiration together

  • Can plants grow without photosynthesis? - UCSB …

    Prokaryotic organisms that can perform the same kind* of photosynthesis that plants ..

  • Can plants grow without photosynthesis

    c allow plants to photosynthesize in the dark d Both a and b Textbook ..

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plants can not grow or survive without ..

As with the previous Epochal Events (, , ), imagine an English peasant of 1500 being placed in the midst of London in 2014, or visiting today's average American home. The only metal in an English home of 1500 might have been some tools and eating utensils. Wood and wool were the primary materials in an English home. Some metals of the modern world would be vaguely familiar, but plastic would be unrecognizable. English peasants’ homes had thatched roofs, dirt floors, no plumbing, and people rarely bathed. Glass windows only existed in rich homes, which were built like fortresses. London was a walled city in 1500, and nobody went outside after dark if they valued their lives. Sewers did not yet exist, and violence and capital punishment were common. In England in 1500, only 1% of women were literate and only 10% of men. About half of all people died before adulthood, and if they survived that long, they could expect to live into their early 60s if they were lucky. Few made it to 70. Only rich people were fat. Strangers roaming the countryside could legally be enslaved. Modern appliances and machines would all be incomprehensible, and all electronic devices would seem magical. How much of a modern TV show would be understandable? Cars, trains, airplanes, and rockets would be mind-boggling. By 1500, news would have filtered into learned circles that Spain discovered some Atlantic islands, but nobody yet suspected that new continents had been discovered. The telescope would not be invented for another century, Earth was seen as the center of the universe, and the . Imagine trying to explain the Apollo moon landings to that peasant, if the peasant did not regard it as some fairy tale (many people ). Could an English peasant from 1500 dropped into 2014 London have ever adapted?

Crassulacean acid metabolism - Wikipedia

The explains plenty, and one reality is that women will always have a genetic investment in their offspring no matter who the fathers are. As civilizations rose and , they all had enhanced reproductive rights (many wives, harems, etc.), and many women found the situation tolerable and even attractive, although there could be coercion in the unions and there are many obvious disadvantages to being a "kept" woman. However, being a wife/concubine for an elite man usually meant a pretty good life and children being provided for. The biggest losers in such societies were non-dominant men, who had diminished procreation opportunities (and eunuchs guarded harems, for instance). With the rise of DNA testing, a repeating dynamic is seen: when one people at a higher economic level (energy use) encountered another, the women from the poorer culture bred with the men from the richer culture, and men from the poorer culture began vanishing from the gene pool. It is particularly noticeable among agriculturalist expansions into hunter-gatherer lands, such as the and from the Fertile Crescent into Europe and North Africa, and seems to be implicated in the spread of Mesoamerican farmers into the USA's Southwest. The general pattern during the Neolithic Expansion seems to have been farmers migrating to arable land and establishing agricultural communities that were surrounded by hunter-gatherers, and it seems more common that the farmer populations expanded and displaced (the men)/absorbed (the women) the hunter-gatherer population than hunter-gatherers learned agriculture. After a career of studying human migrations, Peter Bellwood had this to say about what motivated them:

both photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

From about 32 kya to 22 kya, prevailed in Europe. That culture produced the and art such as the . By 20 kya, . But as far as human expansion is concerned, the Gravettian (and related cultures) are most notorious as mammoth hunters extraordinaire for those that lived on the near the ice sheets. To , they could not swim to Sahul, but flourished everywhere else they could get to. At , they were the ultimate hunter-gatherer kill. Also, near the ice sheets, meat could be stored in the ground. Cro-Magnons did just that, and that “freezer” full of meat led to the first seasonally sedentary humans. It long predated the Domestication Revolution when people could be sedentary year-round, but while the megafauna lasted, the first signs of what came later appeared as Cro-Magnons created villages around frozen mammoth meat. Gravettians hunted along migration routes and set traps and ambushes for mammoths. For thousands of years, mammoths were the primary focus of Gravettian hunters, and many scientists believe that humans at least . Gravettians probably used the bow and arrow, and using poisoned arrows on mammoths would have been child’s play, not a hazardous undertaking. They also tended to focus on the easy meat: the young, relatively defenseless, tender mammoths. Killing the offspring alone would have driven the slowly reproducing mammoths to extinction, and as the interglacial period began around 15 kya, there would have been new pressures on mammoths. One of them was that fewer mammoths meant that they were not terraforming their environments like they used to, and the warming climate probably reduced their range. For a mammoth facing humans, there was literally no place to hide (except maybe in the living room), and there is little reason to think that hunters would have eased up when mammoth numbers dwindled. If anything, their efforts would have to get the last ones, as they competed and fought over the final mammoths. In one lifetime or even several, the changes would have been barely noticeable, if at all. There was simply no way out for mammoths, and they went extinct south of the European ice sheets under the ministrations of Cro-Magnon hunters. More evidence of their fate is some mammoths surviving in refugia: islands where humans did not arrive until thousands of years later. mammoths survived on in the chain off of Alaska until less than six kya, and went extinct when humans arrived. Several hundred apparently full-sized mammoths survived on near Siberia and went extinct less than five kya, when humans arrived. In today's France and Spain, Gravettians also semi-settled along the migration routes of reindeer and red deer. From Spain across Europe, into today's Russia, Gravettians hunted migrating herds, and not only the mammoth was driven to extinction, but also the wooly rhino, the Irish elk, the musk ox, and steppe bison were driven to extinction as the ice sheets retreated. Neanderthals had been ambush hunting in similar fashion, and those animals, like the African megafauna, grew wary of humans, and killing those animals probably took planning and guile.

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