The acute toxicity of dithiocarbamates for fishis rather high.
Many short- and long-term toxicity studies have been carriedout on different dithiocarbamates.
(1982) Neurotoxicity of the pesticidal carbamates.
From these Annexes, it is clear that aldicarb is the most toxic of the carbamates considered; the established ADI for this compound is 0.001 mg/kg body weight.
Pesticides is used as a generic term for any chemical designed to kill groups of plants or animals that are a human health hazard or may cause economic loss. It includes insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, fumigants and herbicides. Approximately 5 billion pounds of pesticide products made up of more than 600 active pesticide ingredients are annually used in agriculture worldwide. Organophosphorus, carbamate and organochlorine pesticides together with pyrethroids, chlorophenoxy herbicides and organic metal compounds used as fungicides have neurotoxic properties ().
(1962) Chemistry and mode of actionof dithiocarbamate fungicides.
These documentsinclude more detail concerning the product and legal aspects,toxicological evaluation, and residues of individualdithiocarbamates in different food items.
The Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) andthe International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) haveevaluated the toxicity and carcinogenicity data for variousdithiocarbamates on several occasions.
(1971) Toxicity of carbamates for mammals.
Acute toxicity (LD50) of dithiocarbamates for experimentalanimals--------------------------------------------------------------------------Compound Animal Dose Reference (mg/kg body weight) oral dermal--------------------------------------------------------------------------Ferbam mouse 1000 FAO/WHO (1965b) rat > 4000 Hodge et al.
Many data are available on the acute toxicity of the carbamates in several fresh- and salt-water fish and other organisms, some of which are listed in Tables 4 and 5.
Carbamate synthesis by carbamoylation
Synthesis of carbamates by carbamoylation
In certain cases, the use of toxic carbamates may cause a significant reduction in non-target organisms.
alcohols with phenyl carbamate proceeds smoothly in toluene ..
However, in certain cases, the metabolites are just as toxic or even more toxic than the parent carbamate.
Phosgene-Free Synthesis of Phenyl Isocyanate by …
The acute dermal toxicity of carbamates is generally low to moderate; an exception is aldicarb, which is highly toxic.
Synthesis description for preparation of urethane (ethyl carbamate)
(1972) [Experimental inhalatory toxicity andsubstantiation of the maximum allowable concentration for somedithiocarbamates in the air of the working area.] Truh.
View Online / Journal Homepage / Table of Contents for this issue
(1966) Toxicological observations on the use of Baygon (2-isopropoxyphenyl N -methylcarbamate) as a malarial control insecticide in El Salvador.
Patent US5686645 - Synthesis of isocyanate precursors …
(1974) The solution photochemistry of metacil (4-dimethyl-amino- m -tolyl- N -methyl carbamate) and Landrin (3,4,5-trimethylphenyl- N -methyl- carbamate).
of isocyanate precursors from primary formamides
PREVIOUS EVALUATIONS BY INTERNATIONAL BODIES For more than 20 years, the Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have been evaluating the toxicity and carcinogenicity data on the different carbamates.
carbamate esters employing boron trichloride
(1971) [Reduction of the toxicity to theliver of carbon tetrachloride by diethyldithiocarbamate and 3-(O-tolyl)-4-(nitro)-sydnone.] Acta biol.
SDS Search - EH&S - Western Kentucky University
Given the apparent lack of physiological substrates, it is possible that P450 enzymes in families CYP1, CYP2, CYP3 and CYP4 that have appeared in the past several hundred million years have evolved as a means of detoxifying foreign chemicals encountered in the environment and diet. Clearly, evolution of the xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s would have occurred over a time period which far precedes the synthesis of most of the synthetic chemicals to which humans are now exposed. The genes in these four gene families may have evolved and diverged in animals due to their exposure to plant metabolites during the last 1.2 billion yearsa process descriptively termed animal-plant warfare (Gonzalez and Nebert 1990). Animal-plant warfare is the phenomenon in which plants developed new chemicals (phytoalexins) as a defence mechanism in order to prevent ingestion by animals, and animals, in turn, responded by developing new P450 genes to accommodate the diversifying substrates. Providing further impetus to this proposal are the recently described examples of plant-insect and plant-fungus chemical warfare involving P450 detoxification of toxic substrates (Nebert 1994).
Chapter 33 - Toxicology INTRODUCTION
8.5.3 Embryotoxicity and teratogencity A number of carbamate esters have been tested for teratogenicity with the chicken embryo bioassay (Marliac, 1964; Ghadiri & Greenwood, 1966; Khera, 1966; Ghadiri et al., 1967; Rybakova, 1968; Olefir & Vinogradova, 1968; Proctor et al., 1976; Moscioni et al., 1977).
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."