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Carbon:nutrient balance hypothesis - Oxford Reference

T1 - The carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis is dead; long live the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis?

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The carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis: Its rise and fall

Question: We present a general structural carbon - nutrient balance hypothesis parallel to Bryant et al.'s defensive chemistry hypothesis. Our hypothesis suggests that because herb species require a lower investment of carbon per unit length of stem than do woody plants, herbs should be at a competitive advantage where the leaf area of plants in the ground layer is limited by light (or fixed carbon, C) rather than soil resources (R) such as nutrients or water. We test the derivative predictions that in temperate deciduous forests (1) herb cover and species richness increase as soil resources increase, and (2) woody ground-layer cover, density, and species richness increase as soil resources decrease. Location: To maximize generality, the eight temperate deciduous forest sites were dispersed along an 800 km band from the Coastal Plain of eastern North Carolina to the Central Basin of middle Tennessee, USA. Methods: Soil nutrients and moisture, herb cover and woody stem densities were observed in six plots at each site, randomly located in high, medium, and low herb cover areas. Multiple regression, correlation, and Redundancy Analysis ordination were used to test predictions. Results: Plants with herbaceous (low C:R) stems are generally abundant where soil moisture and basic cations (Ca, Mg) are high (low C:R environments), and woody (high C:R) plant cover, basal area, stem density, and species richness are all greatest on dry or nutrient-poor soils (high C:R environments). Plots with intermediate soil resource availability and herb cover have the most species, and maximum herb species richness occurs at higher soil resource levels than maximum woody species richness. Conclusions: Our observations are consistent with our structural carbon - nutrient balance hypothesis.

The Carbon±nutrient Balance Hypothesis: Its Rise and …

In total, our results are largely consistent with the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis, and warn that a combination of rising CO2 and nitrogen enrichment will affect the microcystin composition of harmful cyanobacteria. ID: 119541

The carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis is dead; long …

According to the carbon‐nutrient balance hypothesis, this has implications for the production of secondary metabolites.

show that some animals were mobile before the Cambrian Explosion. Sponges were probably the but they were immobile except for their flagella drawing water through them, which carried food and oxygen in and waste out. The first creatures that we would recognize as animals were probably worms crawling atop ocean sediments. As lowly as the worm might seem, it would have needed muscles, bilateral symmetry, a circulatory and digestive/excretory system, and a nervous system run by a brain; that distant ancestor probably possessed . Some early worms may have even had rudimentary eyes. And of possibly eonic importance, worms probably made the first poop. The evolution of may have been a seminal event in the organic carbon burial process. Sponges may have also been largely responsible for initially removing oceanic carbon, which helped increase atmospheric oxygen and helped ventilate the oceans. Until then, organic carbon from dead life forms would not have settled to the ocean floor, but would have floated in the water column and been recycled by other life forms. Although the hypothesis , feces sinking to the ocean floor may have been how life’s burial of carbon began, as well as robbing sulfate-reducing bacteria in the water column of their nutrients and thus enabling oceanic waters to remain oxygenated. Ediacaran fauna did not burrow into ocean sediments, but deep burrowing was characteristic of Cambrian sediments. There is debate today whether Cambrian burrowing was a of oxygenating the ocean floor.

Recent environmental studies show that disturbed ecosystems can have cascading failures, as the removal of one part of a food chain can in , and entire ecosystems can go extinct. Cascades in today's world usually begin when the apex predator is removed (by humans, and called a ), but not always. Those cascading events can happen in aquatic and environments. Food chains are essentially energy chains , and the more complex they are, the more energy is required to sustain them. The leading hypothesis for why is also an energy-scarcity dynamic. Also, the most compelling findings that I have encountered regarding degenerative disease in humans shows that if individual cells no longer have their nutritional needs met by the organism, they stop acting out their role as specialized cells and “.” It may be difficult-to-impossible for scientists to reconstruct and test cascading failure hypotheses in ancient mass extinction events, but they may have played a major role in them, if not the dominant role.

Benefits of the Carbon-Nutrient Balance Hypothesis - …

According to the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis, this has implications for the production of secondary metabolites.

, and (2005)Long- and short-term induction of defences in seedlings of Shorea leprosula (Dipterocarpaceae): support for the carbon:nutrient balance hypothesis. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 21. pp. 195-201.

In total, our results are largely consistent with the carbon‐nutrient balance hypothesis, and warn that a combination of rising CO2 and nitrogen enrichment will affect the microcystin composition of harmful cyanobacteria.

REVIEW The carbon±nutrient balance hypothesis: its …
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  • CARBON-NUTRIENT BALANCE HYPOTHESIS IN WITHIN …

    carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis in within-species phytochemical variation of salix-lasiolepis

  • It is called the carbon:nutrient balance hypothesis

    Lerdau M, Coley P (2002) Benefits of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis

  • Plant defense against herbivory - Wikipedia

    Carbon-Nutrient Balance Hypothesis; Carbon-phosphorus bond; Carbon-phosphorus bond; carbon-pile …

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Carbon, water and nutrient relations of two mistletoes …

AB - Question: We present a general structural carbon - nutrient balance hypothesis parallel to Bryant et al.'s defensive chemistry hypothesis. Our hypothesis suggests that because herb species require a lower investment of carbon per unit length of stem than do woody plants, herbs should be at a competitive advantage where the leaf area of plants in the ground layer is limited by light (or fixed carbon, C) rather than soil resources (R) such as nutrients or water. We test the derivative predictions that in temperate deciduous forests (1) herb cover and species richness increase as soil resources increase, and (2) woody ground-layer cover, density, and species richness increase as soil resources decrease. Location: To maximize generality, the eight temperate deciduous forest sites were dispersed along an 800 km band from the Coastal Plain of eastern North Carolina to the Central Basin of middle Tennessee, USA. Methods: Soil nutrients and moisture, herb cover and woody stem densities were observed in six plots at each site, randomly located in high, medium, and low herb cover areas. Multiple regression, correlation, and Redundancy Analysis ordination were used to test predictions. Results: Plants with herbaceous (low C:R) stems are generally abundant where soil moisture and basic cations (Ca, Mg) are high (low C:R environments), and woody (high C:R) plant cover, basal area, stem density, and species richness are all greatest on dry or nutrient-poor soils (high C:R environments). Plots with intermediate soil resource availability and herb cover have the most species, and maximum herb species richness occurs at higher soil resource levels than maximum woody species richness. Conclusions: Our observations are consistent with our structural carbon - nutrient balance hypothesis.

Terpenes and phenolics in response to ..

In total, our results are largely consistent with the carbon‐nutrient balance hypothesis, and warn that a combination of rising CO2 and nitrogen enrichment will affect the microcystin composition of harmful cyanobacteria.">

The Effect of Nutrients and Enriched CO2 Environments …

N2 - 1. Herbivory and litter decomposition are key controllers of ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. We hypothesized that foliar defences of plant species against vertebrate herbivores would reduce leaf digestibility and would subsequently, through 'afterlife effects', reduce litter decomposability. 2. We tested this hypothesis by screening 32 subarctic plant species, belonging to eight types in terms of life form and nutrient economy strategy, for (1) leaf digestibility in cow rumen juice; (2) biochemical and structural traits that might explain variation in digestibility; and (3) litter mass loss during simultaneous incubation in an outdoor subarctic litter bed. 3. Interspecific variation in green-leaf digestibility corresponded significantly with that in litter decomposability; this relationship was strongly driven by overall variation among the eight plant types (r = 0.92). The same relationship was not detectable within plant types in taxonomic relatedness tests. 4. Several biochemical and structural parameters (phenol-to-N ratio, lignin-to-N ratio) explained a significant part of the variation in leaf digestibility, but again only between and not within plant types. 5. Our results provide further support for the role played by foliar defence in the link between plant and soil via the decomposition pathway. They are also a new example of the potential control of plant functional types over carbon and nutrient dynamics in ecosystems.

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