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of the enzymes directly responsible for cardiolipin biosynthesis, ..

T1 - Cardiolipin biosynthesis and mitochondrial respiratory chain function are interdependent

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[39] Mammalian cardiolipin biosynthesis - ResearchGate

AB - Cardiolipin (CL) is responsible for modulation of activities of various enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Although energy production decreases in heart failure (HF), regulation of cardiolipin during HF development is unknown. Enzymes involved in cardiac cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling were studied in spontaneously hypertensive HF (SHHF) rats, explanted hearts from human HF patients, and nonfailing Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The biosynthetic enzymes cytidinediphosphatediacylglycerol synthetase (CDS), phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGPS) and cardiolipin synthase (CLS) were investigated. Mitochondrial CDS activity and CDS-1 mRNA increased in HF whereas CDS-2 mRNA in SHHF and humans, not in SD rats, decreased. PGPS activity, but not mRNA, increased in SHHF. CLS activity and mRNA decreased in SHHF, but mRNA was not significantly altered in humans. Cardiolipin remodeling enzymes, monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase (MLCL AT) and tafazzin, showed variable changes during HF. MLCL AT activity increased in SHHF. Tafazzin mRNA decreased in SHHF and human HF, but not in SD rats. The gene expression of acyl-CoA: lysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1, an endoplasmic reticulum MLCL AT, remained unaltered in SHHF rats. The results provide mechanisms whereby both cardiolipin biosynthesis and remodeling are altered during HF. Increases in CDS-1, PGPS, and MLCL AT suggest compensatory mechanisms during the development of HF. Human and SD data imply that similar trends may occur in human HF, but not during nonpathological aging, consistent with previous cardiolipin studies.

Cardiolipin: biosynthesis, remodeling and trafficking in the heart and mammalian cells (Review)..

Cardiolipin (CL) is an acidic phospholipid present almost exclusively in membranes harboring respiratory chain complexes. We have previously shown that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CL provides stability to respiratory chain supercomplexes and CL synthase enzyme activity is reduced in several respiratory complex assembly mutants. In the current study, we investigated the interdependence of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and CL biosynthesis. Pulse-labeling experiments showed that in vivo CL biosynthesis was reduced in respiratory complexes III (ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) and oxidative phosphorylation complex V (ATP synthase) assembly mutants. CL synthesis was decreased in the presence of CCCP, an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation that reduces the pH gradient but not by valinomycin or oligomycin, both of which reduce the membrane potential and inhibit ATP synthase, respectively. The inhibitors had no effect on phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis or CRD1 gene expression. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in vivo CL biosynthesis is regulated at the level of CL synthase activity by the ApH component of the proton-motive force generated by the functional electron transport chain. This is the first report of regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis by alteration of subcellular compartment pH.

PTPMT1: Connecting Cardiolipin Biosynthesis to Mitochondrial Function

N2 - Cardiolipin (CL) is an acidic phospholipid present almost exclusively in membranes harboring respiratory chain complexes. We have previously shown that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CL provides stability to respiratory chain supercomplexes and CL synthase enzyme activity is reduced in several respiratory complex assembly mutants. In the current study, we investigated the interdependence of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and CL biosynthesis. Pulse-labeling experiments showed that in vivo CL biosynthesis was reduced in respiratory complexes III (ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) and oxidative phosphorylation complex V (ATP synthase) assembly mutants. CL synthesis was decreased in the presence of CCCP, an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation that reduces the pH gradient but not by valinomycin or oligomycin, both of which reduce the membrane potential and inhibit ATP synthase, respectively. The inhibitors had no effect on phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis or CRD1 gene expression. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in vivo CL biosynthesis is regulated at the level of CL synthase activity by the ApH component of the proton-motive force generated by the functional electron transport chain. This is the first report of regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis by alteration of subcellular compartment pH.

AB - Cardiolipin (CL) is an acidic phospholipid present almost exclusively in membranes harboring respiratory chain complexes. We have previously shown that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CL provides stability to respiratory chain supercomplexes and CL synthase enzyme activity is reduced in several respiratory complex assembly mutants. In the current study, we investigated the interdependence of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and CL biosynthesis. Pulse-labeling experiments showed that in vivo CL biosynthesis was reduced in respiratory complexes III (ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) and oxidative phosphorylation complex V (ATP synthase) assembly mutants. CL synthesis was decreased in the presence of CCCP, an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation that reduces the pH gradient but not by valinomycin or oligomycin, both of which reduce the membrane potential and inhibit ATP synthase, respectively. The inhibitors had no effect on phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis or CRD1 gene expression. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in vivo CL biosynthesis is regulated at the level of CL synthase activity by the ApH component of the proton-motive force generated by the functional electron transport chain. This is the first report of regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis by alteration of subcellular compartment pH.

Connecting Cardiolipin Biosynthesis to Mitochondrial Function

N2 - Cardiolipin (CL) is responsible for modulation of activities of various enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Although energy production decreases in heart failure (HF), regulation of cardiolipin during HF development is unknown. Enzymes involved in cardiac cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling were studied in spontaneously hypertensive HF (SHHF) rats, explanted hearts from human HF patients, and nonfailing Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The biosynthetic enzymes cytidinediphosphatediacylglycerol synthetase (CDS), phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGPS) and cardiolipin synthase (CLS) were investigated. Mitochondrial CDS activity and CDS-1 mRNA increased in HF whereas CDS-2 mRNA in SHHF and humans, not in SD rats, decreased. PGPS activity, but not mRNA, increased in SHHF. CLS activity and mRNA decreased in SHHF, but mRNA was not significantly altered in humans. Cardiolipin remodeling enzymes, monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase (MLCL AT) and tafazzin, showed variable changes during HF. MLCL AT activity increased in SHHF. Tafazzin mRNA decreased in SHHF and human HF, but not in SD rats. The gene expression of acyl-CoA: lysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1, an endoplasmic reticulum MLCL AT, remained unaltered in SHHF rats. The results provide mechanisms whereby both cardiolipin biosynthesis and remodeling are altered during HF. Increases in CDS-1, PGPS, and MLCL AT suggest compensatory mechanisms during the development of HF. Human and SD data imply that similar trends may occur in human HF, but not during nonpathological aging, consistent with previous cardiolipin studies.

Studies in the isolated perfused rat heart and H9c2 cardiac myoblast cells have indicated that the rate-limiting step of cardiolipin biosynthesis, via the cytidine-5'-diphosphate-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol pathway, is the conversion of phosphatidic acid and cytidine-5'-triphosphate to cytidine-5'-diphosphate-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol.

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  • Cardiolipin Biosynthesis (Oryza sativa) - WikiPathways

    Evaluation of the cardiolipin biosynthetic pathway and its interactions ..

  • Regulation of cardiolipin biosynthesis in the heart | …

    Impaired Cardiolipin Biosynthesis Prevents Hepatic Steatosis and Diet-Induced Obesity

  • Cardiolipin Biosynthesis and Function - Miriam Greenberg

    Role of Phospholipases in Regulation of Cardiolipin Biosynthesis and Remodeling in the Heart and Mammalian Cells

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Mammalian cardiolipin biosynthesis

Cardiolipin (CL) is responsible for modulation of activities of various enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Although energy production decreases in heart failure (HF), regulation of cardiolipin during HF development is unknown. Enzymes involved in cardiac cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling were studied in spontaneously hypertensive HF (SHHF) rats, explanted hearts from human HF patients, and nonfailing Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The biosynthetic enzymes cytidinediphosphatediacylglycerol synthetase (CDS), phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGPS) and cardiolipin synthase (CLS) were investigated. Mitochondrial CDS activity and CDS-1 mRNA increased in HF whereas CDS-2 mRNA in SHHF and humans, not in SD rats, decreased. PGPS activity, but not mRNA, increased in SHHF. CLS activity and mRNA decreased in SHHF, but mRNA was not significantly altered in humans. Cardiolipin remodeling enzymes, monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase (MLCL AT) and tafazzin, showed variable changes during HF. MLCL AT activity increased in SHHF. Tafazzin mRNA decreased in SHHF and human HF, but not in SD rats. The gene expression of acyl-CoA: lysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1, an endoplasmic reticulum MLCL AT, remained unaltered in SHHF rats. The results provide mechanisms whereby both cardiolipin biosynthesis and remodeling are altered during HF. Increases in CDS-1, PGPS, and MLCL AT suggest compensatory mechanisms during the development of HF. Human and SD data imply that similar trends may occur in human HF, but not during nonpathological aging, consistent with previous cardiolipin studies.

Cardiolipin Biosynthesis and Remodeling - …

The activities of the other enzymes of the cytidine-5'-diphosphate-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol pathway of cardiolipin biosynthesis in the heart may be modulated by thyroid hormone and unsaturated fatty acids.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 cardiolipin biosynthesis …

In addition, extra-mitochondrial cytidine-5'-diphosphate-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol and phosphatidylglycerol may be utilized for cardiolipin biosynthesis in the heart and permeabilized cells.

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