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Cellular Synthesis of Protein Catenanes - ResearchGate

self-limited events as a result of cellular activation after synthesis ..

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Artificial Organelle: ATP Synthesis from Cellular …

Activation of mTORC1 has different consequences in cell homeostasis. The main one is its implication in regulation of cell growth and regulation. mTORC1 promotes protein synthesis, ribosomal biogenesis, mRNA transcription, and synthesis of lipids and nucleotides through different ribosomal mediators such as S6K and 4E-BP1. mTORC1 also intervenes in the regulation of autophagy, the process of self-degradation of cell components with the objective of maintaining homeostasis in normal or stress conditions. mTORC1 inhibits Ulk1, leading to activation of autophagy mechanisms to obtain energy and eliminate damaged organules. Prolonged inhibition of these autophagy mechanisms has been associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, and autism due to intracellular accumulation of protein aggregates. The mTOR pathway plays a fundamental role in the regulation of both innate and acquired immunity. mTORC1 and mTORC2 control the differentiation, maturation, and function of antigen-presenting cells and of B and T cells through NF-kB transcription factor and GATA3, respectively, although the specific mechanism of action by which the 2 complexes modulate the immune system is not known. The angiogenic activity of mTOR is essentially exercised through translation and activation of HIF-1, a molecule that is associated with VEGF expression in situations of cell hypoxia and that maintains mTORC1 innactive. Although less is known of the molecular functions of mTORC2, this complex has been associated with regulation of cell survival and organization of the actin cytoskeleton through the Rho/rac pathway.

Objective: Investigate and explain cellular processes: Synthesis of new molecules

The gene expression and protein synthesis of TLR4, NALP3, caspase-1, IL-1β and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were detected by real-time PCR, ELISA, western blot analysis and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), respectively.

ATP Synthesis | Adenosine Triphosphate | Cellular …

James Bond Cellular Spy (Protein Synthesis)

A complex cellular process was reconstructed using a multiprotein polymersome system. ATP has been produced by coupled reactions between bacteriorhodopsin, a light-driven transmembrane proton pump, and F0F1-ATP synthase motor protein, reconstituted in polymersomes. This indicates that ATP synthase maintained its ATP synthesis and therefore its motor activity in the artificial membranes. This hybrid proteopolymersome will have wide application in a number of fields ranging from the in vitro investigation of cellular metabolism to the synthesis of functional “smart” materials.

The mechanism of action of mTOR inhibitors is based on inhibition of the mTOR kinase activity through binding to the immunophilin FKBP12. This inhibition exerted by the sirolimus/FKBP12 complex blocks activation of protein synthesis and detains the process in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The result is antitumoral action (thanks to activation of cellular apoptosis, reduction in VEGF expression, and inhibition of migration and cell invasion) and an immunodulatory action (as a result of suppression of activation and proliferation of T cells and decreased antibody production).


and that cellular DNA synthesis in muscle cells was increased by 500%!

Metabolism includes catabolism and anabolism. Anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from precursors, while catabolism is the breakdown of complex molecules into smaller precursors from which they are synthesized. All these pathways involve biochemical reactions. Free energy describes whether a reaction will occur spontaneously. In metabolism, reactions which are spontaneous are favorable because these run automatically and release free energy. Every reaction has an activation energy which can be lowered down by enzymes. Enzymes do this by bringing the reactants closer together. ATP is the energy currency of all cells. Most of the reactions in the cell require ATP. A non-spontaneous reaction can be coupled to ATP hydrolysis reaction to enable the overall reaction release free energy and therefore become favorable. ATP is generated by cellular respiration, which contains fermentation (anaerobic respiration) and the Krebs cycle (aerobic fermentation).

03/10/2005 · Synthesis, cellular uptake and animal toxicity of a tetra(carboranylphenyl)-tetrabenzoporphyrin

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