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INTRODUCTION from poultry faeces and shown to produce a cellulase- ..

Activity of endoxylanases (1-4 β-.Bioprospecting xylanase enzymes from environmental…28 Jul 2014 MSc thesis.

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Xylanase and cellulase production from microorganisms Ph.D.

Parulekar (2016) and Abraham (2016) have recently carried out isolation of microorganisms from the mangrove habitat for the extraction of enzymes. Parulekar reported production of manganese peroxidase enzyme from the fungi isolated from the degrading wood whereas Abraham reported production of lignin peroxidase enzyme from the bacteria isolated from the degrading wood. These studies clearly indicate that neglected habitats such as mangroves of Konkan region of Maharashtra and Goa states should be thoroughly screened as it could act as a hot spot of novel microbes with bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites such as enzymes having industrial applications. Identification done by only morphological and biochemical studies often leads to error so the use of molecular marker such as 16S rRNA gene sequence is highly recommended. In the present study, sequence similarity of the amplified gene clearly indicated that the isolate was from the genus Streptomyces vindicating the fact that this molecular tool can be effectively used for reliable species identification up to genus level (Isik et al., 2014; Mabrouk and Saleh, 2014; Sari et al., 2014)

Optimization, Isolation and Characterization of Cellulase–Free Thermostable Xylanase from

Anabolic and catabolic factors manifest at the cellular level in an interplay of lipids (fat-based substances) in the cell membranes that function as a kind of "skin" surrounding each cell. Fatty acids are oriented vertically in the cell membrane (lining up from outside to inside), while sterols are primarily oriented horizontally. Together they provide a latticework structure that controls cellular permeability, regulating the inflow of the oxygen and nutrients needed for the generation of energy within the cell, and the outflow of metabolic wastes. The fatty acids primarily contribute flexibility and permeability to the cell membrane, while the sterols function as valves controlling the movement of substances into and out of the cell.

Application o the Extracted Cellulases

The strain was thermophile and produced highly active cellulase free xylanase.

The extracted cellulase protein was found to be highly stable in a broad range of buffers for the test incubation period (1 h). More than 70% of initial activity was retained after 1 h incubation at pH 11.0. The cellulase protein was also found to be a highly thermostable. After 1 h incubation, the enzyme showed 60% and more than 95% residual activity at 80oC and 90oC, respectively. Interestingly, there is approximately, 50% activity retained after 30 min incubation at 100oC.

Out of 20 isolates screened for cellulase production 14 were found to be cellulase producers. Isolates Ac1, Ac6, Ac13, Ac15 and Ac20 showed zone of clearance of 30mm and above. Ac3 showed the smallest zone of 10mm. Ac6 showed maximum zone of 34 mm whereas Ac1 showed a zone of 32 mm hence these two isolated were selected for further studies.

Rice Straw Degradation by Cellulase

These enzymes include xylanase, cellulase, isomerase, amylase, invertase, protease and pectinase.

Sleep disturbances have become epidemic in our culture, partly because we tend to value action and "doing" over relaxation and "being". Stress and digestive problems, such as acid reflux, are primary contributors, as are cellular pH changes and adrenal excess or insufficiency (too much cortisol makes it hard to sleep; not enough makes it hard to stay awake!). The hormone melatonin, produced by the pineal gland, also plays a key role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. Insufficient melatonin production - which is a common phenomenon of aging - adds to the difficulty of getting a good night's sleep and, thereby, recharging our batteries.

As we all know, oxygen plays a central role in the oxidation process, the intracellular creation of energy in the form of ATP. Oxygen is alkaline forming in the blood, while carbon dioxide - which is produced as a by-product of the oxidation process - is acid forming. The ratio between them is intimately connected with maintaining the optimal blood pH of 7.46, which is the primary goal of the nutritional protocols of Metabolic Typing. At this pH level, all of the systems of the body are encouraged to function harmoniously. If there is an excess of oxygen (or deficit of CO2) the blood will be overly alkalized. Conversely, if there is an excess of carbon dioxide (or deficit of oxygen) the blood will be overly acidified.

Screening of Actinomycetes Cultures for Cellulase Enzyme Production Ability by Plate Assay
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  • Application of the Extracted Cellulases

    KEYWORDS: Actinomycetes; Cellulase; Enzyme applications; Phylogenetic analysis; 16S rRNA; Polymerase Chain Reaction

  • Rice Straw Degradation by Cellulase

    (2006)Bacterial Cellulase from a Local Isolate, Bacillus Pumilus EB3. Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

  • Biodegradation of the hemicellulases.

    At first screening, isolation and characterization of cellulase free thermostable xylanase producing bacteria were

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: properties of strains and their hemicellulases.

Kulkarni C. P, Maurya C. B. Characterization of the Cellulase Enzyme Produced by Actinomycetes Isolated from the Mangrove Coastal Areas. Biosci Biotech Res Asia 2017;14(2). Available from:

Thesis + Cellulase Production – 735908 – Clingus

Cellulase production from bacteria can be an advantage as the enzyme production rate is normally higher due to bacterial high growth rate. Screening of bacteria, optimisation of fermentation conditions and selection of substrates are important for the successful production of cellulase. This study is conducted to produce cellulase from our local isolate Bacillus pumilus EB3, using oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate. The effect of physical, chemical and thermal pretreatment on the EFB chemical composition and physical structure was studied, aimed at reducing lignin and hemicellulose, and making EFB structure more amorphous. The effect of pretreatment on reducing sugars production using commercial cellulase (Celluclast 1.5L) was also examined. Production of cellulase was conducted in shake flask and 2L stirred tank reactor (STR). The effect of initial pH, temperature, nitrogen source and carbon source on cellulase production in the shake flask was investigated. Following that, cellulase produced from B. pumilus EB3 was purified using ion exchange chromatography with anion exchanger (HiTrap QXL) for characterisation of the cellulase. The results of EFB pretreatment revealed that combination of pretreatments involving physical, chemical and thermal treatment was most suitable to affect the chemical composition and physical structure of the EFB. Initial cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content in untreated EFB were 51%, 28% and 15% respectively. After combination of pretreatments, the cellulose composition increased to 67% while hemicellulose and lignin content decreased to 17% and 10% respectively. The physical structure of the EFB was altered after pretreatments as based on the SEM micrograph. Alteration of EFB was due to removal of lignin and hemicellulose. Combination of pretreatments increased the hydrolysis of the EFB with the yield of 0.53 g reducing sugars / g EFB as compared to the untreated EFB where only 0.07 g reducing sugars being produced from 1 g of EFB. Study on cellulase production confirmed that fermentation parameters such as initial pH, temperature, carbon source and nitrogen source affected cellulase production. Cellulase from B. pumilus EB3 was found to be secreted the most at temperature 37°C, initial pH 7.0, 1% CMC as carbon source and 2 g/L of yeast extract as organic nitrogen source. The activity recorded during the fermentation was 0.006 U/mL, 0.076 U/mL and 0.032 U/mL respectively for FPase, CMCase and β-glucosidase. As production in the shake flask showed that EFB gave a competitive cellulase production as CMC, EFB was tested as carbon source in 2L STR. Due to hydrophobic characteristic of the treated EFB, the experiment was not so successful. Comparison of cellulase production using CMC as substrate in shake flask and 2L STR revealed that cellulase productivity was higher in the 2L STR than in the shake flask although overall, the maximum cellulase activity recorded was almost similar. Purification of cellulase from B. pumilus EB3 using ion exchange chromatography showed that 98.7% of total CMCase was recovered. Protein separation was however based on subtractive separation where the contaminants were bound to the column instead of CMCase. Characterisation of the enzyme found that CMCase from B. pumilus EB3 has a molecular weight range from 30-65 kDa and was optimally active at pH 6.0 and temperature 60°C. The CMCase also retained its activity over a wide pH range (pH 5.0–9.0) and temperature range (30-70°C).

Thesis on cellulase enzyme production - …

And, in some Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock…This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Graduate College at Iowa maximum ethanol yield based on the total sugars (glucan+xylan) in PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LACCASE…We recommend that it be submitted as fulfilling the thesis requirement.

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