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photosynthesis notes - Biology Junction

It is the site of the electron transport chain wherein a proton potential is created that helps power the ATP formation

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The Process of Photosynthesis in Plants: An Overview

The diagram depicts the process of cellular respiration. There are three steps in this process. The first step is Glycolysis. In Glycolysis, glucose in the cytoplasm is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid and two molecules of ATP by direct synthesis. Then pyruvate from Glycolysis is actively pumped into mitochondria. One carbon dioxide molecule and one hydrogen molecule are removed from the pyruvate (called oxidative decarboxylation) to produce an acetyl group, which joins to an enzyme called CoA to form acetyl CoA. This is essential for the Krebs cycle.2 Acetyl CoA gives 2 NADH molecules and acetyl-CoA enters the Citric Acid Cycle, which is also known as Kreb's cycle. This happens inside the mitochondria. The citric acid cycle is an 8-step process involving different enzymes and co-enzymes. During the cycle, acetyl-CoA (2 carbons) + oxaloacetate (4 carbons) yields citrate (6 carbons), which is rearranged to a more reactive form called isocitrate (6 carbons). Isocitrate is modified to become -ketoglutarate (5 carbons), succinyl-CoA, succinate, fumarate, malate, and, finally, oxaloacetate. The total yield from 1 glucose molecule (2 pyruvate molecules) is 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP. All the hydrogen molecules which have been removed in the steps before (Krebs cycle, Link reaction) are pumped inside the mitochondria using energy that electrons release. Eventually, the electrons powering the pumping of hydrogen into the mitochondria mix with some hydrogen and oxygen to form water and the hydrogen molecules stop being pumped. Eventually, the hydrogen flows back into the cytoplasm of the mitochondria through protein channels. As the hydrogen flows, ATP is made from ADP and phosphate ions. The Electron transport Chain gives about 34 ATP by ATP synthase. The maximum energy generated per glucose molecule is 38 ATP.

The process of photosynthesis in plants consists of a complex series of biochemical reactions

Saturated fatty acid residues tend to adopt mainly a zigzag type of conformation when in the crystal lattice of triacylglycerols, and the inclusion of a double bond does not significatively affect this situation, despite the slight shortening of the carbon chain which it entails.

The Discovery of Photosynthesis

you summarise aerobic cellular respiration as a chain of biochemical reactions?

A second, independent attempt was and is the use of specific probeslike fluorescence-tagged antibodies that help to find out whethera certain protein (or part of a polypeptide chain) is locatedat the inside or the outside of a membrane. The use of antibodiesagainst specific proteins allows, too, to precipitate these proteinsselectively since only they are able to form the extremely specificantigen - antibody complex.

This diagram shows the biochemical reaction cycles. Since all energy source of the biological objects on the earth is the sun, the cycle starts from the sun. Sun gives light to plants. The plants produce Glucose or sugar and oxygen by the process called photosynthesis with carbon dioxide and water produced by other plants and animals. Specifically, the Chloroplasts in the plants produces the Glucose. The Glucose and the sugar and oxygen are consumed by other plants and animals by cellular respiration in mitochondria. By the cellular respiration, plants and animals produce ATP which is a source of energy. Comsuming the Glucose and oxygen, the plants and animals also produce water and carbon dioxide. The water and carbon dioxide provides the ingredient for photosynthesis of plants. With the water and carbon dioxide, the plants produces glucose and oxygen with sunlight which completes the cycle.

Plant Energy Transformations-Photosynthesis - …

In our discussion of photosynthesis have we thus far only regarded biochemical reactions

Animals that consume plants also make use of this energy, as do those that consume those that consume plants, and so on to the top of the food chain.

As important a job as making all of the world's food is, there's another vital function that photosynthesis performs: It generates the oxygen that oxygen-breathing animals need to survive.

Cellulose is a form of in which some 1500 glucose rings chain together. It is the chief constituent of cell walls in living organisms. Wood is mostly cellulose, making cellulose the most abundant type of organic compound on the Earth.

Dark Reactions The series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis that ..
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    Electron transfer chains (ETC) are the cellular mechanisms used for getting energy from sunlight in photosynthesis

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The photosynthetic process in all plants and algae ..

Cellulose molecules tend to be straight chains, and the fibers which result from collections of cellulose molecules have the strength to form the supporting structures of plants. Even though human digestion cannot break down cellulose for use as a food, animals such as cattle and termites rely on the energy content of cellulose. They have protozoa and bacteria with the necessary enzymes in their digestive systems. Cellulose in the human diet is needed for fiber.

energy for the dark reactions of photosynthesis, ..

It was always accepted that each of the biochemical reactionswas catalyzed by a specific enzyme and still, it took quite sometime before it was realized that the chlorophyll and the otherpigments are protein-bound and that they are only active as protein-chlorophyll(and protein-pigment, respectively) complexes. The isolated pigmentsthemselves were useless for photosynthesis. The pigment-proteincomplex, (most) proteins of the electron transport chain as wellas the catalyst of ATP synthesis (ATP synthase) are integral compoundsof the photosynthesis membrane(s) (= the thylacoid membranes ofalgae and higher green plants, cytoplasmatic membranes of photosyntheticallyactive bacteria and blue-green algae). The location within themembrane (at the out- or the inside, for example) and the relativearrangement of the proteins towards each other are important prerequisitesof energy transformation.

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