What are the main characteristics of a good hypothesis?
What are the main characteristics of a good hypothesis
The main characteristics of a good hypothesis
Hence, ethical judgments and contextual values enter thescientist's core activity of accepting and rejecting hypotheses, andthe VNT stands refuted. Closely related arguments can be found inChurchman (1948) and Braithwaite (1953). Hempel (1965: 91–92)gives a modified account of Rudner's argument by distinguishingbetween judgments of confirmation, which are free ofcontextual values, and judgments of acceptance. Since evenstrongly confirming evidence cannot fully prove a universal scientificlaw, we have to live with a residual “inductive risk” ininferring that law. Contextual values influence scientific methods bydetermining the acceptable amount of inductive risk.
Feminist standpoint theorists and proponents of “situatedknowledge” such as Donna Haraway (1988), Sandra Harding (1991,1993) and Alison Wylie (2003) deny the internal coherence of a viewfrom nowhere: all human knowledge is at base human knowledgeand is therefore necessarily perspectival. But they argue more thanthat. Not only is perspectivality the human condition, it is also agood thing to have. This is because perspectives, especially theperspectives of underprivileged classes, come along with certainepistemic advantages.
A second desirable attribute of a good hypothesis is generality.
Indeed, many debates at the interface of science and public policyare characterized by disagreements on propositions that combine afactual basis with specific goals and values. Take, for instance, theview that growing transgenic crops carries too much risk in terms ofbiosecurity, or that global warming needs to be addressed by cuttingCO2 emissions. The critical question in such debates iswhether there are theses such that one side in the debateendorses , the other side rejects it, the evidence is shared,and both sides have good reasons for their respective positions.
A related attempt to save the VNT is given by Isaac Levi(1960). Levi observes that scientists commit themselves to certainstandards of inference when they become a member of theprofession. This may, for example, lead to the statistical rejectionof a hypothesis when the observed significance level is smaller than5%. These community standards may eliminate any room for contextualethical judgment on behalf of the scientist: they determine whenhe/she should accept a hypothesis as established. Value judgments maybe implicit in the standards of scientific inference, but not in thedaily work of an individual scientist. Such conventionalstandards are especially prolific in theoretical research where itdoes not make sense to specify application-oriented utilities ofaccepting or rejecting a hypothesis (cf. Wilholt 2013). The VNT, andthe idea of scientific objectivity as value freedom, could then besaved for the case of individual scientific reasoning.
What are the essential characteristics of Hypothesis?
no analysis of whatconstitutes the method of science would be satisfactory unless itcomprised some assertion to the effect that the scientist as scientistaccepts or rejects hypotheses. (1953: 2)
The turn from scientific results and methods to the socialorganization of science involves numerous problems. On the one hand,we might ask how many and which voices must be heard for science to beobjective. It is not clear for instance whether non-scientists shouldhave as much authority as trained scientists. The condition ofequality of intellectual requires only “qualified”practitioners to equally share authority—but who qualifies as“qualified”? Nor is it clear whether it is always a goodidea to subject every scientific result to democratic approval, asPaul Feyerabend proposed (Feyerabend 1975: 1978). There is noguarantee that democratized science leads to true theories, or evenreliable ones. So why should we value objectivity in the sense ofsocial epistemologists?
what are the characteristics of a good hypothesis? | …
20/07/2009 · What are the characteristics of a good ..
what are the characteristics of a good hypothesis
What characteristic must be true of good hypothesis?
Characteristic of a good hypothesis - Arhanta Yoga …
Characteristics & Qualities of a Good Hypothesis
28/08/2008 · List characteristics that make a hypothesis scientific.
Characteristics of a Good Research Question
The most recent literature on values and evidence in sciencepresents us with a broad spectrum of opinions. Steele (2012) bolstersDouglas's approach by arguing that various probabilistic assessmentsof uncertainty, e.g., imprecise probability, involve contextual valuejudgments as well. Betz (2013) argues, by contrast, that scientistscan largely avoid making contextual value judgments if they carefullyexpress the uncertainty involved with their evidential judgments,e.g., by using a scale ranging from purely qualitative evidence (suchas expert judgment) to precise probabilistic assessments. The issue ofvalue judgments at earlier stages of inquiry is not addressed by thisproposal; however, disentangling evidential judgments and judgmentsinvolving contextual values at the stage of theory assessment may be agood thing in itself.
Characteristics of Good Research Essay - 460 Words
Moreover, the distinction between direct and indirect roles ofvalues in science may not be sufficiently clear-cut to police thelegitimate use of values in science. Douglas (2009: 96) distinguishesbetween values as “reasons in themselves”, that is,treating them as evidence or defeaters for evidence (direct role,illegitimate) and as “helping to decide what should count as asufficient reason for a choice” (indirect role,legitimate). But can we always draw a neat borderline? Assume that ascientist considers, for whatever reason, the consequences oferroneously accepting hypothesis undesirable. Therefore heuses a statistical model whose results are likely to favor¬ over . Is this a matter of reasonableconservativeness? Or doesn't it amount to reasoning to a foregoneconclusion, and to treating values as evidence (cf. Elliott 2011:320–321)?
9 Major Characteristic of Usable Hypothesis
Second, he notes that no scientific hypothesis is ever confirmedbeyond reasonable doubt—some probability of error alwaysremains. When we accept or reject a hypothesis, there is always achance that our decision is mistaken. Hence, our decision is also“a function of the importance, in the typically ethicalsense, of making a mistake in accepting or rejecting ahypothesis” (1953: 2): we are balancing the seriousness of twopossible errors (erroneous acceptance/rejection of the hypothesis)against each other. This corresponds to type I and type II error instatistical inference.
another important characteristic of good ..
Theories are seldom tested against brute observations,however. This too is for good reason: if they were, they'd be unlikelyto track the absolute conception. Simple generalizations such as“all swans are white” are directly learned fromobservations (say, of the color of swans) but they do not representthe view from nowhere (for one thing, the view from nowhere doesn'thave colors). Genuine scientific theories are tested againstexperimental facts or phenomena, which are themselves unobservable tothe unaided senses. Experimental facts or phenomena are insteadestablished using intricate procedures of scientific measurement andexperimentation.
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