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the search returned all KEGG entries that contained the word 'lysine' anywhere in the enzyme or compound name.

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Cholesterol synthesis requires:

Scavenger receptor plays important roles in atherosclerosis, inflammation, thrombosis, and angiogenesis. Statins besides lowering serum cholesterol levels, exhibit a variety of effects on inflammation, coagulation and atherosclerosis lesion stability. -gamma ligands influence macrophage responses to many inflammatory stimuli. Herein, we investigated in human monocytes the effect of statins alone, and in combination with -gamma ligands on expression, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory action of statins. Our results demonstrate that statins upregulate both surface protein and mRNA by potentiating the transcription of the gene. Furthermore, the combination of statins and -gamma ligands has an additive effect on expression. Effects of statins on expression were prevented by mevalonate and geranylgeraniol, indicating the requirement of geranylgeranylated proteins for regulation. Rho ases inhibitor C3 exoenzyme reproduced the effect of statins, while Rho activator lysophosphatidic acid downregulated Transient expression of dominant-negative mutants of RhoA and RhoB induced a significant increased in promoter activity. Finally, the actin cytoskeleton disrupter cytochalasin D upregulated These data indicate that Rho proteins are important modulators of expression, and strongly suggest that statins increased expression by disrupting cytoskeleton organization by inactivating Rho ases. These features prompt to investigate the roles of Rho ases and actin cytoskeleton modulators on monocytic functions affected by statins.

Drug Development KEGG PATHWAY is a reference database for .

It can be considered to be a "computer representation" of the biological system.

Below are the listings of over 150 common KEGG's () Pathways.
• The icon will link to the KEGG's Pathway Diagram.
• The pathway link will lead to a list of products associated with that particular pathway.

Pathways Name start with:

KEGG PATHWAY: Metabolic pathways - Reference pathway

The conversion of squalene into cholesterol via several enzymatic reactions

1. Synthesis of mevalonate, a reduced C6 compound from 3 Acetyl-CoA units
2. Activation of mevalonate to isopentenyl-PP (isoprene unit), a C5 precursor which is used to elongate a lipid chain to squalene, a C30 intermediate
3. Cyclycation and demethylation of squalene by monooxygenases to the cyclic C27 cholesterol end product

About 40% of the bodies caloric intake is derived from lipids and almost all of these calories come from fats, the . The fatty acid composition in terms of saturation (oxidation forms) is not uniform but varies with the origin. Plant fats contain more polyunsaturated fatty acids and animal fats contain more saturated fatty acids as well as cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats are essential for humans because animals are not able to synthesize those on their own. Most lipids, however, have metabolic functions contributing to membrane structures and signaling. (C20:4) is a fatty acid which plays a central role as precursor for prostaglandin synthesis. Phospholipids are synthesized from diacylgycerolphosphate, a negatively charged phospholipid precursor and signaling molecule itself, carrying various hydrophilic and/or charged headgroups that determine the surface charge and chemical properties of biological membrane surfaces.

KEGG modules [BR:ko00002] Pathway module ..

other genes in the bile acid/cholesterol pathway, ..

Missing enzymes that appear to interrupt a pathway occur when no entry for this enzyme (gene, amino acid sequence, protein structure) exists in database, not only KEGG.

Thus, the results showing the presence of cholesterol synthetic enzymes in peroxisomes (see references 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, and 26), the reduced levels of cholesterol synthesis enzymes and cholesterol synthetic capacity of cells and tissues lacking peroxisomes, 26, 37, 39 and the low serum cholesterol levels in patients suffering from peroxisomal deficiency diseases40-43 demonstrate that peroxisomes are essential for normal cholesterol synthesis. A number of metabolic pathways require co-participation of enzymes located in both peroxisomes as well as enzymes found in other intracellular compartments. For example, the first steps of plasmalogen synthesis occur in the peroxisomes, while the terminal reactions are completed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Similarly, the oxidation of cholesterol to bile acids requires the participation of enzymes localized in the endoplasmic reticulum as well as peroxisomes. Little is known about the regulation of such pathways or about the shuttling of intermediates between compartments. The physiological importance of peroxisomal enzymes in the regulation of sterol metabolism remains to be clarified.

extract a list of genes present in a KEGG pathway.
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    KEGG PATHWAY Database (KEGG)



  • many of the genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway.35 In …

    KEGG Orthology (KO) [BR: ..

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Products and Diagrams by KEGG Pathway | MyBioSource

The steroidal hormones are all derived from cholesterol and circulating LDL particles in the blood stream. is made in the liver and then is used to make pregnenolone, which is the primary "master" steroidal hormone. Without adequate cholesterol or LDL, steroidal hormone production can be significantly impaired.

View products and see diagrams by KEGG pathway

As an example we are interested in the general structure of . A link provided in the category 'Lipids' provides a page containing the names and chemical structures of seven cholesterol derived steroid hormones.


Endocrinology. 2007 Aug;148(8):3722-9. Epub 2007 May 3.
"B-Type natriuretic peptide inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol transfer, and steroidogenesis in primary human adrenocortical cells. 2007"
Liang F, Kapoun Lam A, Damm Quan D, onnell M, Protter
Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, California 94555,
In this study, we demonstrate that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) opposed angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated de novo cholesterol biosynthesis , cellular cholesterol uptake, cholesterol transfer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, and steroidogenesis, which are required for biosynthesis of steroid hormones such as aldosterone and cortisol in primary human adrenocortical cells. dose-dependently stimulated intracellular cGMP production with an of 11 nm, implying that human adrenocortical cells express the guanylyl cyclase A receptor. cDNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that inhibited Ang II-stimulated genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis (acetoacetyl coenzyme A thiolase, coenzyme A synthase 1, coenzyme A reductase, isopentenyl-diphosphate Delta-isomerase, lanosterol synthase, sterol-4C-methyl oxidase, and emopamil binding protein/sterol isomerase), cholesterol uptake from circulating lipoproteins (scavenger receptor class B type I and low-density lipoprotein receptor), cholesterol transfer to the inner mitochondrial membrane (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), and steroidogenesis (ferredoxin 1,3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, glutathione transferase and ) . Consistent with the microarray and real-time results, also blocked Ang II-induced binding of (125)I-labeled low-density lipoprotein and (125)I-labeled high-density lipoprotein to human adrenocortical cells. Furthermore, markedly inhibited Ang II-stimulated release of estradiol, aldosterone, and cortisol from cultured primary human adrenocortical cells. These findings demonstrate that opposes Ang II-induced steroidogenesis via multiple steps from cholesterol supply and transfer to the final formation of steroid hormones. This study provides new insights into the cellular mechanisms by which modulates Ang II-induced steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland.


The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 compound, to the first C21 steroid, pregnenolone, which is converted by a bifunctional enzyme complex to the gestagen hormone, progesterone [MD:M00230].

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