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...Rough endoplasmic reticulum bears the during synthesis.

The has no such bound ribosomes and is not involved in protein synthesis. However, the SER is involved in

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...How do translocate into the of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

-Synthesis begins on the rough ER; it is glycosylated as it moves through the RER and Golgi.
-Apo B-100: synthesized by the liver and found in VLDL and LDL, represents the entire protein coded for by the apo B gene.

We have also mentioned the fact that one very important function of any membrane...

Rough ER is the of manufacture of secretory as well as ...

The rough appearance under electron microscopy of the ER and led to ...

Rough ER is the of synthesis.

The "rough" appearance of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) results ...

One cannot watch crawling, dividing, their chromosomes, or rearranging their surface without feeling curious about ...

The rough and smooth ER differ in both appearance and function but are ...

Explore the structure and function of the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum.


So conversion to cholesterol does not happen
-7-DHC is converted to vitamin D3 in the skin

-Component of all cell membranes
-Precursor bile acids, steroid hormones, and vitamin D
-Liver regulates body's cholesterol homeostasis
-Cholesterol is eliminated from liver as unmodified cholesterol in the bile or it can be converted to bile salts
-Component of plasma lipoproteins
-Gradual deposition of cholesterol influx and efflux, particularly in endothelial linings of blood vessels from imbalanced cholesterol influx and efflux AKA atherosclerosis

Structure of Cholesterol
-Very hydrophobic
-4 fused hydrocarbon rings (A-D) AKA steroid nucleus
-8 carbon branched hydrocarbon chain attached to carbon 17 of D ring
-Ring A has a hydroxy group at carbon 3
-Ring B has a double bond between carbon 5 and 6

-Steroids with 8-10 carbon atoms in the side chain at carbon 17 + hydroxyl group at carbon 3
-Cholesterol is the major sterol in animal tissues
-Intestinal uptake is mediated partially by protein Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein (NPC1-L1), the target of the drug ezetimibe that reduces absorption of dietary cholesterol
-Plant sterols (phytosterols) are poorly absorbed by humans.

The rough ER is also the of the related work of synthesizing of some ...

Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum.

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  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum in an cell.

    It is basically of two types - Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER).

  • Thus, consideration of rough ER or portions thereof (e.g.

    What would happen to rough endoplasmic reticulum if this process were blocked?

  • Each type of fiber looks, feels, and functions differently.

    What is different about the that is destined for the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

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Lipid synthesis-phospholipids, cholesterol, ..

It blocks the uptake of cholesterol by competing with its bind to intestinal mucosal cell membranes (negative feedback)

Cholesterol, Lipoprotein, and Steroid Metabolism

Regulation of Cholesterol Synthesis
-HMG CoA reductase is the major control point for cholesterol biosynthesis

Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

The outer surface of rough ER is covered with tiny structures called ribosomes, ...

The rough ER serves as the of membrane synthesis.

Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum ..

Sterol-dependent regulation of gene expression
-HMG CoA reductase expression is controlled by transcription factor SREBP-2 that binds DNA at the cia-acting sterol regulatory element (SRE) upstream of reductase gene
-SREBP-2 is an integral protein of ER membrane and associates with a second protein SCAP
-When sterol levels are low in cell, SREBP-SCAP complex moves from ER to GA
-SREBP-2 is subsequently acted upon by 2 proteases which generate a soluble fragemnt that enters the nucleus, binds SRE, and functions as a transcription factor
-Results in increased cholesterol synthesis
-Abundant sterols= they bind SCAP at it's sterol sensing domain and insigs (insulin induced gene)
-This down regulates cholesterol synthesis
-SREBP-1 upregulates expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis in response to insulin

Synthesis of bile acids

-In the liver
-Double bond of the cholesterol B ring is reduced
-Hydrocarbon chain is shortened by three carbons, introducing a carboxyl group at the end of the chain.

cholesterol metabolism, membrane synthesis,

Sterol-accelerated enzyme degradation
-HMG CoA reductase activity is controlled covalently through actions of AMP activated protein kinase & phosphoprotein phosphatase
-Phosphorylated form of the enzyme is inactive
-Desphosphorylated form is active
-AMPK is activated by AMP, cholesterol synthesis, like fatty acid synthesis, is decreased when ATP availability is decreased

The ribosomes on rough ER specialize in the synthesis of ..

The rough endoplasmic reticulum is distinguished by the embedded on its ...

Books about "rough endoplasmic reticulum" ...

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