Shake and Bake or One Pot Meth Making - Some …
The mechanism of action seems to be related to impaired protein synthesis.
Shake and Bake or One Pot Meth Making.
The fight has come full circle. In the 1980s, the U.S. government severely restricted access to P2P seeking to curtail methamphetamine production. Meth makers shifted to ephedrine, which could be found in common cold remedies. When authorities cracked down on ephedrine, they switched to pseudoephedrine, the active ingredient in Sudafed and other decongestants.
DAVID W. KOOP, Associated Press WriterMEXICO CITY -- Mexican cartels are increasingly going "old school" to keep supplying America with methamphetamine despite an ingredient squeeze.Some gangs have responded to a Mexican crackdown on their meth chemical of choice — pseudoephedrine — by reviving a production method so old, it was used by U.S. motorcycle gangs and bathtub chemists in the 1970s and '80s, recent seizures show.The re-emergence of the "P2P method" demonstrates how frustrating it is to crack down on a synthetic drug that — unlike cocaine, heroin and marijuana — comes from recipes of chemical ingredients, known as "precursors," instead of a plant.When police succeed in cutting off the supply of one precursor, traffickers move on to or make another."Chemical restrictions are like squeezing mud, the stuff just comes out between your fingers," said Steve Preisler, who wrote the "Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture" under the nom de plume Uncle Fester and is considered the father of modern meth-making. "They make life difficult for the smurfers (home producers) but for people with connections, well, they find it to be no problem at all."Still, authorities contend going after precursors has produced results. The crackdown contributed to a sharp decrease in meth production in Mexico and a drop in availability on U.S. streets in 2007 and in the first half of 2008, according to the U.S. National Drug Intelligence Center's 2009 methamphetamine report.And authorities say the P2P method is less desirable for the gangs because it reputedly produces a less-potent drug.But using easy-to-get phenylacetic acid, as well as new sources of contraband pseudoephedrine, Mexico's meth gangs regrouped, and their output was stabilizing or increasing by late 2008, the drug center's assessment said.The latest turn in the meth fight began in 2005, when Mexican officials started imposing progressively tighter restrictions on imports of the ephedrine and pseudoephedrine used in cartels' meth labs. A near-total ban on medicines containing pseudoephedrine went into effect last year.Traffickers found ways to smuggle the banned chemical into Mexico, and they moved some manufacturing abroad. They also started looking into new ingredients.They came across phenyl-2-propanone, or P2P. While P2P itself is highly restricted and closely monitored by authorities, there are many ways to make it. Gangs found they could get their hands on phenylacetic acid, which can be made into P2P, which in turn can be made into meth. They began acquiring phenylacetic acid and its derivatives in huge quantities.DEA tests of confiscated methamphetamine from Mexico show that in 2007 only 1 percent of meth was made using phenylacetic acid and related chemicals. So far this year, it is 16 percent.In October, Mexican officials announced the record seizure of 37 tons of phenylacetic acid derivatives — sodium phenylacetate and 2-phenylacetamide — that could have made up to 25 tons of crystal meth.The announcement of the coordinated seizures in the border city of Nuevo Laredo and in the Pacific port of Manzanillo also revealed earlier big hauls of phenylacetic acid: 15 tons in May, almost 2 tons in March and 1.8 tons in June and July."We are starting to see a rise in chemicals that are easier to get," said U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration spokeswoman Dawn Dearden.Preisler, who works at an electroplating factory and has been arrested twice in the U.S. for his work with methamphetamine, says he isn't surprised traffickers have turned to P2P."P2P is old school," he said. "Hell, I used to cook by that route circa 1980."The fight has come full circle. In the 1980s, the U.S. government severely restricted access to P2P seeking to curtail methamphetamine production. Meth makers shifted to ephedrine, which could be found in common cold remedies. When authorities cracked down on ephedrine, they switched to pseudoephedrine, the active ingredient in Sudafed and other decongestants.When U.S. authorities regulated bulk sales of the ephedrines, meth production shifted to Mexico, where, at the time, gangs could get their hands on mammoth quantities of pseudoephedrine imported from China and India.Mexico was soon supplying up to 80 percent of the drug sold in the U.S., and American authorities were calling meth the No. 2 drug threat to society after cocaine.Once Mexico restricted imports and sales of pseudoephedrine, the cartels took a hit.The volume of methamphetamine seized in the United States fell 34 percent, from 7.1 tons in 2006 to 4.7 tons in 2007, according to the U.S. National Drug Intelligence Center. It also said it observed decreased drug purity. Dearden says DEA agents found the price of meth increased.Experts say a crackdown on phenylacetic acid would likely just push traffickers to other chemicals."People forget that these are synthetically made drugs, and we haven't even seen the end of all the possible recipes," said Ralph A. Weisheit, an Illinois State University professor who wrote "Methamphetamine: Its History, Pharmacology and Treatment."
How does one synthesise methamphetamine? | Drug Synthesis
Formerly called neutrophil-activating protein; synthesized by monocytes and various tissue cells in response to inflammatory stimuli; performs chemotaxis of neutrophilic granulocytes and subsequent granule exocytosis and respiratory burst; induces increased expression of adhesion molecules CD11b/CD18 (complement C3 receptor CR3) and promotes vascular leakage.
Formerly called interferon ß2; synthesized by T cells, monocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells, among others, during inflammatory reactions; stimulates T and B cells to proliferate and differentiate; has properties similar to IL-1 and acts synergistically with it in the acute-phase response (fever, synthesis of acute-phase proteins); synergizes with IL-3 in promoting haematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation; inhibits production of IL-1 and tumour necrosis factor by monocytes Interleukin 7.
Complete Methamphetamine Synthesis from ..
IL-1 has (together with IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor) multiple effects in the systemic acute-phase response and in local acute and chronic inflammation: it stimulates T (helper) cells to synthesize IL-2 and IL-2 receptors, interferon gamma, and other lymphokines, B cells (proliferation and differentiation), neutrophils, and natural killer cells; stimulates monocytes and macrophages to produce IL-1, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor; acts in the acute-phase response by inducing synthesis of acute-phase proteins in liver and reducing cytochrome P450 synthesis; induces natriuresis in kidney, insulin production in pancreas ß cells, muscular proteolysis ('easy' energy generation) in muscle cells, slow-wave sleep in cerebral cortex; raises the temperature set-point (fever) in hypothalamus; stimulates haematopoiesis and prostaglandin synthesis by various cell types (fibroblasts, macrophages, endothelium); inhibits gastric motility in vitro ; induces collagenase production by synovial cells and osteoclasts, and antiviral state; inhibits gastric smooth muscle in vitro ; is cytostatic for tumour cells and activates endothelium Interleukin 2.
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is an important pathway in the communication between the central nervous system and the immune system, resulting in synthesis of glucocorticosteroid hormone by the adrenal gland induced by adrenocorticotrophic hormone from the pituitary gland (Buckingham et al., 1992).
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TULSA, Okla. — This is the new formula for methamphetamine: a two-liter soda bottle, a few handfuls of cold pills and some noxious chemicals. Shake the bottle and the volatile reaction produces one of the world's most addictive drugs.
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Don't try this at home folks.
This is the new formula for methamphetamine: a two-liter soda bottle, a few handfuls of cold pills and some noxious chemicals.
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The "shake-and-bake" approach has become popular because it requires a relatively small number of pills of the decongestant pseudoephedrine an amount easily obtained under even the toughest anti-meth laws that have been adopted across the nation to restrict large purchases of some cold medication...The pills are crushed, combined with some common household chemicals and then shaken in the soda bottle.
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But now drug users are making their own meth in small batches using a faster, cheaper and much simpler method with ingredients that can be carried in a knapsack and mixed on the run. The "shake-and-bake" approach has become popular because it requires a relatively small number of pills of the decongestant pseudoephedrine — an amount easily obtained under even the toughest anti-meth laws that have been adopted across the nation to restrict large purchases of some cold medication.
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