Red Queen hypothesis - Wikipedia
Waddington's former student, geneticist Steve Jones, points to cave fish as a good example of how epigenetics may progress:
06/10/2007 · What is a competing hypothesis
Scientists acknowledge that there are some questions science simply cannot answer. Whether Genesis as recorded in the King James Bible describes a literal truth about the physical universe is a testable hypothesis, and it turns out to be false. We know this from dating of rocks and fossils, for one thing. But whether or not there is a God is not a testable hypothesis. That's a matter of personal belief. As Stephen Jay Gould put it, science and religion are "nonoverlapping magisteria." While evolution doesn't require a supreme being, it doesn't preclude the existence or involvement of such a being, either.
One of the most important ways in which the rock record supports evolutionary theory is the succession of fossils in older versus newer rock layers. As far back as the 18th century, scholars realized that fossils in older layers differed more from modern life forms than fossils in newer layers. While many fossils from the Pleistocene Ice Age resemble organisms living today, far fewer fossils from the Age of Reptiles do. If you venture back in the rock record to the Precambrian (prior to roughly 550 million years ago), you'll find few fossils of multicellular organisms at all, though you will find some. So striking has this fossil succession been that when asked what would disprove evolution, 20th-century British scientist J.B.S. Haldane quipped, "Fossil rabbits in the Precambrian." No such bunnies have ever been found.
Multiple Working Hypotheses - University of Georgia
This oxygen infusion into the Earth's atmosphere could have contributed to the onset of ice ages. In the 1960s, Brian Harland and Martin Rudwick hypothesized that the Earth experienced a tremendous ice age during the Neoproterozoic, a geological time period starting around a billion years ago. Renewed claims for a Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth hypothesis came from Paul Hoffman, Daniel Schrag and coauthors starting in the late 1990s. They argued that global snowball conditions would have alternated with hothouse conditions.
Although scientists differ on the extent of the ice, there is fairly widespread acceptance of the presence of glaciers at sea level at the equator, though some researchers prefer the term Slushball Earth. Many researchers have hypothesized the occurrence of two snowball events: the Sturtian (lasting from about 710 million to 670 million years ago) and the Marinoan (concluding about 635 million years ago.
Chamberlin and the method of multiple working hypotheses.
Bradley and Thaxton suppose that their critique of Oparin's hypothesis is pretty much decisive, so they turn to alternative accounts of the origins of life which have been proposed. These include: (i) Cairns-Smith's proposal that life arose on solid substrates with enough complexity to mutate and evolve in a lifelike way (e.g. on crystalline clays); (ii) Corliss's proposal that hydrothermal vents on the sea floor may have supplied the energy and nutrients needed to create and sustain life; (iii) Wachterschauser's and de Duve's proposals of ways in which life might have started as a metabolic process on the surface of a solid (e.g. a pyrite mineral or a thioester); (iv) proposals based on Prigogine's studies of spontaneuous ordering in far-from-equilibrium systems; and (v) Eigen's account of the development of early living systems given various protein molecules and RNA. Bradley and Thaxton contend that either these theories are 'pure speculation', without any empirical support ((i), (iii)); or they lack the ability to solve the problem of informational complexity ((ii), (iii), (iv)); or they are not really relevant to the problem of origins (v).
The main argument which Bradley and Thaxton give--the one upon which they place the most stress--is a familiar one. In 1947, the French chemist du Nouy sought to cast doubt on evolutionary theory--and, in particular, on Oparin-style hypotheses--by calculating the probability that a protein molecule be assembled purely by chance from the atoms which make it up. He found--of course--that the chance of this happening is incredibly small. Bradley and Thaxton give a similar calculation, but they assume that the fundamental building blocks from which we begin are the amino acids rather than atoms. Consequently, they provide a probability which is much larger than the one given by du Nouy, but still one which is incredibly small.
Statistical Tests between Competing Hypotheses of …
What is a key future when using multiple competing hypotheses
The Red Queen hypothesis, ..
of what’s known as the cooking hypothesis.
New scientific knowledge has led us to realize that the theory of evolution is no longer a mere hypothesis.
A metabolic hypothesis for the evolution of …
Sep 01, 2017 · Why are we not evaluating multiple competing hypotheses in ecology and evolution
Umbrella hypotheses and parsimony in human evolution…
One of the supernatural aspects of Bible miracles is the time element: the length of time the miracle required to occur. For example, Bible healings are often said to occur immediately. To take this symbolically and argue that the healings took many months or years to occur would be to make it appear the event could have happened naturally. Likewise, to argue for long ages in creation is to weaken its supernatural character, making the miracle less wonderful, and thereby making it easier to believe that life could develop naturally.
Review of THE CREATION HYPOTHESIS - Atheism
The significance is to describe the dark period and light period of the day, so the day is a 24-hour day. Such language always refers to 24-hour days in passages of history or doctrine. Consider these examples:
ActionBioscience - promoting bioscience literacy
Over the course of their evolutionary history, many organisms have lost genes, but sometimes the function of the discarded gene can be regained by repurposing genetic material the species has left. Many vertebrate species possess three genes related to taste, named T1R1, T2R2 and T3R3. Among this trio, T2R2 gives humans and other animals the ability to taste sweet foods. Genetic studies indicate that birds have lost the gene that would enable them to appreciate a candy store. But nectar-sipping hummingbirds show a clear preference for a sugary diet. A study led by Maude Baldwin in 2014 concluded that hummingbirds had repurposed T1R1 and T3R3, which pair up to sense umami (savory) flavors, to sense sweet ones as well. Baldwin postulated that hummingbird ancestors might have been introduced to a sweet diet by hanging out near flowers to catch insects. If so, it would bolster Darwin's claim that taste "must be acquired by certain foods being habitual — [and] hence become hereditary," though Baldwin cautioned that more evidence, such as early hummingbird fossils, was needed to flesh out her hypothesis.
Endosymbiosis - The Appearance of the Eukaryotes
DNA studies help humans find our own spot in the tree of life. Comparing the genetic material of humans and other great apes shows that our DNA differs within our own species by about 0.1 percent, with that of the chimpanzees by about 1.2 percent, and with that of the gorillas by about 1.6 percent. Yet humans and African apes (including gorillas) all share more similar DNA than the African apes share with orangutans, which dwell in Asia. Darwin predicted that humans branched off from other apes in Africa and modern studies back up his hypothesis.
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