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The Common Types of Chemical Reactions

"Keep Your Eyeon theIons" isa double-replacementreaction demonstration.

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Drawing Lewis Dot Structures for Chemistry

Environmental scientists recognize that the fundamental source of energy for most life on earth is the sun. Through photosynthesis, plants capture the light and convert it into chemical potential energy. Plants then store the potential energy in the form of (biological matter that fuels nearly every animal on earth).

How to Calculate Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions

You have already studied the "dark reaction" and I will refer you to Dr. Diwan's notes on the subject. As the overall process of photosynthesis involves a series of electron transfer reactions, we are in the realm of oxidation-reduction chemistry, and it would help to review the basics of these processes because we will be going into this topic in greater depth. There is a direct analogy to electron transfer in the mitochondrion, in which clumps of energy are transferred from one electron carrier to another along a "chain" and H+ ions are translocated out, across the mitochondrial membrane, thus generating an electrochemical gradient. The energy inherent in this gradient is used to synthesize ATP in the process of "oxidative phosphorylation." The same processes occur in photosynthesis and the chloroplast, the site of photosynthesis in plants and blue-green algae (but not in photosynthetic bacteria), is the analog of the mitochondrion in eukaryotes.

The following equation sums up the photosynthesis reaction:

are examples of combination reactions.

Chapter 22 ("Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation") in Voet & Voet (3rd Edition) is one of the most important chapters in the entire text (at least in my opinion) and it would help to reread it as you look at the light reaction of photosynthesis in more detail over the next two lectures.

A molecule in an excited electronic state must dissipate the extra energy in some way, and we can talk about different modes of "decay" of that energy to a lower electronic state (which does not necessarily have to be the ground state). There are three types of dissipation that can occur: "non-radiative," "radiative," and chemical reaction.

are examples of decomposition reactions.

Reaction (2) is known as the "light reaction" and reaction (3) is known as the "dark reaction" but both can take place in the light. However, (2) is light-dependent, whereas (3) is not.

A sequence of chemical reactions transfers the sun’s light energy into the chemical bonds that hold together special, energy-carrying molecules (the most common of which are called ).

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  • Here is the molecular equation for this reaction:

    In , two or more reactants form one product. The reaction of sodium and chlorine to form sodium chloride,

  • Combustion reactions are also a type of redox reaction.

    Chemical Reactions:

  • , or , are reactions in which electrons are exchanged:

    (3) Reaction with another molecule, including transfer of its energy to another molecule, which can then react

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Specifically, the reactions through the L-subunit are:

Several general types of chemical reactions can occur based on what happens when going from reactants to products. The more common types of chemical reactions are as follows:

Alfredo Arroyo Chemistry- Period 2Ms.

Decomposition reactions are really the opposite of combination reactions. In , a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances (elements and/or compounds).

See the balanced overall chemical reaction for photosynthesis.

We'll look at a simpler example of photosynthesis first, and use it as an introduction to photosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Although the primary reactions of photosynthesis take place at "photosynthetic reaction centers," the first level of interaction of light with an organism that carries out photosynthesis is at an assembly of chlorophyll molecules that "harvest" light (the "light-harvesting complex"). Such an assembly results in a greater chance that photons will be captured and, because of the strategic arrangement of the individual chlorophyll and other accessory light-absorbing molecules, the transfer of energy to the photosynthetic reaction center is very fast (-10 s) and very efficient (>90%).

The reaction is 6CO2 + 12H2O ..

When one adds these two reactions together, the overall reaction (1) results. [H.], the reducing agent, is an "intermediate" in the overall reaction. It looks like two H2O molecules are needed in reaction (2) but then you get one of them back in reaction (3).

Chemical Reactions- Photosynthesis by Alfredo Arroyo …

Respiration consists of a complicated series of chemical reactions. In the first stage, glucose is oxidized, and the chemical potential energy of its bonds is transferred to the chemical potential bonds of an ATP molecule. The ATP molecule can then be transported throughout the cell where its stored energy is used to complete various tasks within the cell. This process releases carbon dioxide gas and water.

Transcript of Chemical Reactions- Photosynthesis

In single displacement reactions, only one chemical species is displaced. In , or , two species (normally ions) are displaced. Most of the time, reactions of this type occur in a solution, and either an insoluble solid (precipitation reactions) or water (neutralization reactions) will be formed.

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