What Are Photosynthesis and Respiration?
Therefore, aerobic respiration is some 19 times as efficient as anaerobic respiration.
AP Bioloy- Compare and Contrast Photosynthesis with Respiration?
Oxygenic photosynthesis uses two systems for capturing photons. The first one (called ) uses . The second one (called because it was discovered before Photosystem II) uses captured photon energy to add an electron to captured carbon dioxide to help transform it into a sugar. That “” is accomplished by the , and an enzyme called Rubisco, , catalyzes that fixation. Below is a diagram of the Calvin cycle. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
Aerobic respiration is the most efficient way of breaking down organic matter although some compounds in the effluent are not broken down completely. The tanks often contain porous solid materials, on which biofilms can develop, increasing the numbers of microbes and so the efficiency of the breakdown process. During this process, a fairly solid material known as activated sludge is formed. This contains a mix of microbes and undigested material. Since it contains all of the essential microbes to break down incoming waste, some of it is added to batches of new sewage (Figure 5). After this aerobic digestion, and a variety of other purification procedures, the liquid portion of the sewage is usually safe to discharge into rivers or the sea. The remaining activated sludge material is subjected to various other types of biological processes to reduce further the amount of organic matter it contains. Anaerobic bacteria are often used in this subsequent stage, since, although they grow more slowly, they can break down more complex materials that are difficult to degrade using microbes that respire aerobically. The gases produced in this anaerobic process are carbon dioxide and methane, a mixture called biogas, which can be collected and subsequently burned for energy production.
Both autotrophs and heterotrophs perform cellular respiration.
Just as were “invented,” somewhere between 1.6 bya and 600 mya a eukaryote ate a cyanobacterium and both survived, and that cyanobacterium became the ancestor of all chloroplasts, which is the photosynthetic organelle in all plants. As with similar previous events, it appears that it , and all plants are descended from that unique event. The invention of the chloroplast , which were the first plants. The first algae fossils are from about 1.2 bya. Most algae species are not called plants, as they are not descended from that instance when a eukaryote ate a cyanobacterium. The non-plant algae, such as , also have chloroplasts, from various “envelopment” events when algae chloroplasts were eaten and the grazers and chloroplasts survived. Below is the general outline of the tree of life today, in which bacteria and archaea combined to make eukaryotic cells, and in which the bacterium enveloped into a protist to make plants, and all complex life developed from protists. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
During that “,” , , and the rise of grazing and predation had eonic significance. While many critical events in life’s history were unique, one that is not is multicellularity, , and some prokaryotes have multicellular structures, some even with specialized organisms forming colonies. There are , but the primary advantage was size, which would become important in the coming eon of complex life. The rise of complex life might have happened faster than the billion years or so after the basic foundation was set (the complex cell, oxygenic photosynthesis), but geophysical and geochemical processes had their impacts. Perhaps most importantly, the oceans probably did not get oxygenated until just before complex life appeared, as they were sulfidic from 1.8 bya to 700 mya. Atmospheric oxygen is currently thought to have remained at only a few percent at most until about 850 mya, although there are recent arguments that it remained low until only about 420 mya, when large animals began to appear and animals began to colonize land. Just as the atmospheric oxygen content began to rise, then came the biggest ice age in Earth’s history, which probably played a major role in the rise of complex life.
I. Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Another way to utilize NilocG Enhance Seachem Flourish Excel for bioavailable carbon (CO2) in a better, staggered way, rather than all at once, is a calibrated drip system.
In this experiment I was able to get 20 drops per minute. I measured 20 drops and this was equal to a ¼ tsp. So 4 minutes would equal 1 tsp. There are 6 tsp in one fluid ounce. So at this rate you will go through a ounce in 24 minutes. Add the correct dosage for your aquarium size then add the water (RO or DI water is best to mix with Flourish).
Example: For a 50 gallon planted aquarium you would add one capful (5 mL) of Flourish Excel (or 5 mL of NilocG Enhance). Then, depending upon how long you would like to stagger the drip would determine the amount of water. For this example I would suggest 20 oz. of water to mix for 8 hours of drip (24 minutes per ounce x 20 ounces water/Flourish Excel solution).
With larger containers, longer dosing times can be achieved.
However, even though Flourish Excel or Enhance can remain active for 24 hours, from my experience I would suggest 8 hours for best results (keeping in mind that CO2 is not utilized by plants after dark as they use oxygen instead during non-photosynthetic periods).
II. Principles of Science
A. List the ecological levels of the hierarchy of matter.
B. List and describe the five physical characteristics of the biosphere which allow life to exist on Earth.
C. Describe the biomes east and west of Kansas City with respect to limiting factors and vegetation.
D. List the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem.
E. Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cell respiration.
F. State the Principle of Competitive Exclusion and the Law of Tolerances.
G. State the Law of Conservation of Matter and the two Laws of Thermodynamics.
H. Describe the application of the Law of Conservation of Matter and the two Laws of Thermodynamics to ecosystems.
I. Describe factors which lead to ecosystem stability.
J. Describe nutrient cycling and the specific of two cycles.
Complete descriptions of photosynthesis and aerobic, …
16/06/2011 · •Complete descriptions of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration
Complete descriptions of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration
Biology: Complete descriptions of photosynthesis and aerobic
Description of Photosynthesis and Respiration
02/09/2011 · Answer to Complete descriptions of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration.
SOLUTION: Photosynthesis and Aerobic Respiration
As will be explored in this essay, all of the marine life have anoxia as a suspected contributing cause, so oxygen is a major area of interest among extinction specialists. Whether oxygen levels were also significant contributing causes of evolutionary innovation is another area of interest today. Again, to food chains. Even if the first animals did not respire anaerobically, they adapted to aerobic respiration early on and then became dependent on it. There would be no going back for animals; all except those few adapted to and anoxic environments went “all in” with aerobic respiration.
Explain how photosynthesis and respiration are linked in ..
But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)
Photosynthesis and aerobic Respiration – Qessays
The Cambrian Explosion had several phases to it, with explosions of life and mass extinctions, and a general atmospheric oxygen rise accompanied it. Anoxic conditions coincided with extinctions. would not be that affected by what complex life was doing (although anaerobes were generally driven underground and into the seafloor), but the rise of complex life led to new ecosystems. Before the rise of animals, the seafloor was smooth and “stiff,” but burrowing animals had profound impact on seafloor ecosystems and may have played a prominent role in creating the ecosystems themselves. Corals created new ecosystems, as life terraformed Earth.
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