Dream relevance continuity hypothesis
09/10/2017 · Empirical studies largely support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming
Chapter 8: The Continuity Between Dreams and Waking …
Empirical studies largely support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming. Despite of previous research efforts, the exact formulation of the continuity hypothesis re-mains vague. The present paper focuses on two aspects: (1) the differential incor-poration rate of different waking-life activities and (2) the magnitude of which interindividual differences in waking-life activities are reflected in corresponding differences in dream content. Using a correlational design, a positive, non-zero correlation coefficient will support the continuity hypothesis. Although many re-searchers stress the importance of emotional involvement on the incorporation rate of waking-life experiences into dreams, Hartmann (2000) formulated the hypothesis that highly focused cognitive processes such as reading, writing, etc. are rarely found in dreams due to the cholinergic activation of the brain during dreaming. The present findings based on dream diaries and the exact measurement of waking activities replicated two recent questionnaire studies. These findings indicate that it will be necessary to specify the continuity hypothesis more fully and include factors (e.g., type of waking-life experience, emotional involvement) which modulate the incor-poration rate of waking-life experiences into dreams. Whether the cholinergic state of the brain during REM sleep or other alterations of brain physiology (e.g., down-regulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) are the underlying factors of the rare occurrence of highly focused cognitive processes in dreaming remains an open question. Although continuity between waking life and dreaming has been
Nor is there much evidence for a strong correlation between dream content and objective tests like the MMPI, California Psychological Inventory (CPI), and Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (e.g., Winget and Kramer, 1979, for a review of such studies through the early 1970s). We will focus primarily on those few studies reporting some positive results, all of which support the continuity hypothesis.
09/01/2012 · Emotions are an integral part of dreaming
We believe the findings to be presented in this chapter demonstrate a continuity between dreams and waking life: the concerns people express in their dreams are the concerns they have in waking life. What they dream about is also what they think about or do when they are awake. We call this claim the "continuity hypothesis." Just as the "consistency hypothesis" characterizes our major findings on people's dream lives over the space of time, so too the "continuity" hypothesis summarizes what we have learned about the relationship between the dreaming and waking minds. Taken together, the consistency and continuity hypotheses are our major evidence for the overall "meaning" of dreams in the sense of (1) regularity and (2) correspondence with other psychological variables.
Although the continuity hypothesis is a straightforward and simple one, the actual nature of the continuity is somewhat complicated. The continuity usually is with both thought and behavior, but sometimes it is only with waking thought. For example, people who have highly aggressive dreams are not always aggressive people in waking life, but they admit to many aggressive thoughts and fantasies during the day. Similarly, people who have frequent sex dreams are not always sexually active in reality, but they entertain the same thoughts in waking life and sometimes practice frequent masturbation to the accompaniment of their sexual fantasies. These two examples are not happenstance ones. It is our hypothesis, based on a limited number of cases, that sexual and aggressive preoccupations in dreams are the ones most frequently manifested only in waking thought. Our best case example of this point will be presented later in the chapter.
Continuity Hypothesis - Macalester College
It seems it will be very promising to design studies that investigate all factors of the model preferably simultaneously with different methodological paradigms (diary studies eliciting effect of everyday events on dreams, laboratory studies applying experimental manipulation of what is experienced during the day) in order to arrive at a comprehensive, empirically tested, and precise formulation of the continuity hypothesis.
Most of our evidence for the continuity hypothesis comes from "testimony" by the dreamer or people who know the dreamer. Sometimes this testimony is augmented by what might be considered more "objective" or "physical" evidence, as when a child molester is jailed for his behavior or mental patients are hospitalized. For the most part, though, our evidence comes down to testimony, and for some of our most satisfying analyses we have relied exclusively upon the testimony of the dreamers.
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CONTINUITY HYPOTHESIS - Psychology Dictionary
Psychology Definition of CONTINUITY HYPOTHESIS: 1
The Fatal Lure of the Continuity Hypothesis | …
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Further tentative support for the continuity hypothesis comes from the findings on two nights of laboratory dream reports from 24 subjects divided into high and low expressors of impulses in waking life, as determined by an MMPI subscale. Those who were high on impulse expression in waking life also tended to express more sexuality and hostility in dream reports (Ben-Horin, 1967). Van de Castle (1968; with Holloway, 1970) reports positive correlations between some Hall/Van de Castle categories and the MMPI profiles of several types of psychiatric patients, but the studies do not involve large numbers of subjects and no details are given. On the other hand, Fletcher (1970), in a study of 529 dream reports, found no relationship between measures of aggression in dream content and various MMPI scales.
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Foulkes and Rechtschaffen (1964), as one part of a larger study of the effects of different films on the laboratory dream reports of 13 male and 11 female subjects, studied the correlations between 22 MMPI scales and the subjects' own ratings of their dreams for such dimensions as emotionality, unpleasantness, violence, dramatic quality, and degree of distortion. Once again, several significant differences could be expected by chance in such a large matrix. Perhaps the most interesting finding for our purposes, and one consistent with those of Rychlak and Brams (1963), was a positive correlation between various hostility scales derived from the MMPI and unpleasantness in dream content (Foulkes and Rechtschaffen, 1964:994). In a later study of dream reports from 14 boys ages 13-15 who each spent two nights in the sleep lab, Foulkes et al. (1969) found that the degree of active participation in the dream action correlated positively with dominance on the CPI. They also found a positive correlation between CPI aggression scores and physical aggression in dream reports. Once again, these findings are compatible with our continuity hypothesis.
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Similar conclusions can be drawn from a study comparing themes in daydreams to several personality measures (Gold and Reilly, 1985/86). Thirty male and 32 female college students took an objective personality test, listed their most important current concerns, and then kept a diary of their daydreams. No correlations were found between any of the personality dimensions and daydream themes, but a little over half of the daydreams related to the students' five most important current concerns, clear evidence for the continuity hypothesis.
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