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2. knowing what something is made of doesn'tsuffice to explain it

II. Defended method of hypothesis and test inPreface to (1678)

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II. Defended method of hypothesis and test inPreface to (1678)

It has been mentioned that Newton probably called these statements “phenomena” because he knew that they are valid only to the limits of observation. In this sense, Newton had originally conceived Kepler’s laws as planetary “hypotheses,” as he had also done for the phenomena and laws of planetary satellites.

A. Huygens concerned with the hypothesis thatlight requires time for its propagation (MM 130)

Brown never understood what he was witnessing. Nor did a number of other scientists, who began noticing other examples of what came to be known as Brownian motion: the constant but irregular zigzagging of colloidal particles, which can be seen clearly through a microscope. Later, however, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) and others were able to explain this phenomenon by what came to be known as the kinetic theory of matter.

2. yet for Huygens, the finite speed of light is“only a hypothesis”

A. Huygens concerned with the hypothesis thatlight requires time for its propagation (MM 130)

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

This very convincing use of Gay-Lussac's law and Avogadro's hypothesis by Cannizzaro quickly provided the chemical community with a direct way of establishing not only the molecular formulas of binary compounds but also the relative atomic masses of elements, starting with quantitative analytical data and the density of the appropriate gaseous substances.

2. yet for Huygens, the finite speed of light is“only a hypothesis”

a. what he’s written on it is “full ofdifficulty or even inconceivable” (MM 132)

Two years later, in 1925, German physicist Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) introduced what came to be known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, showing that the precise position and speed of an electron cannot be known at the same time. Austrian physicist Erwin Schrdinger (1887-1961) developed anequation for calculating how an electron with a certain energy moves, identifying regions in an atom where an electron possessing a certain energy level is likely to be. Schrdinger's equation cannot, however, identify the location exactly.

Newton’s analytic solution of the curve of least descent is of particular interest as an early example of what became the calculus of variations. Newton had long been concerned with such problems, and in the had included (without proof) his findings concerning the solid of least resistance. When David Gregory asked him how he had found such a solid, Newton sent him an analytic demonstration (using dotted fluxions), of which a version was published as an appendix to the second volume of Motte’s English translation of the

a. what he’s written on it is “full ofdifficulty or even inconceivable” (MM 132)
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  • argues that the mechanical hypothesis itself ..

    The hypothesis of a natural background level of PCP has not been examined further.

  • According to the Corpuscular Hypothesis

    There is considerable uncertainty about what “curious treatise, ” Halley saw; see I. B. Cohen, , ch. 3, sec. 2.

  • various forms of Boyle's corpuscular hypothesis

    Boyle's corpuscular hypothesis and Locke's primary-secondary quality distinction

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Does Newton feign an hypothesis

This section examines the phenomena that Locke seems to consider tooobscure for the corpuscular hypothesis to illuminate. These arethe three phenomena mentioned in the above-quoted passage, theproduction of sensation, the communication of motion, cohesion,[]and a fourth,gravity, which Locke discusses directly only outside theEssay. A subsequent section reviews some of the mainpositions that have been taken in the debate about the status of thecorpuscular hypothesis for Locke, and that same section considersvarious interpretations of superaddition, since any interpretation ofthat concept is logically tied to one's view about Locke'sstance toward the corpuscular hypothesis.

a corpuscular hypothesis lies beneath ..

One part of the corpuscular hypothesis' purported explanationis conceivable, namely, the interactions among the primaryqualities of bodies, which are supposed to be part of the causal basisof our sensations:

"The Data Alone Proved Boyle's Hypothesis" 17 ..

Third, Locke arguably takes the corpuscular hypothesis to havelimitations or shortcomings so serious that they amount to fatal flaws,an interpretation that Margaret Wilson (1979) was perhaps the first todefend. Wilson develops her line of argument mainly in connectionwith difficulties Locke raises about the corpuscular hypothesis'purported ability to explain sensation and more generally, the relationbetween thought and matter,[]but some other phenomena aretroublesome as well. Locke appears to consider such phenomena tobe so obscure that we can attempt to understand them only byattributing them to God's direct action.

the Sceptical Chymist presented Boyle's hypothesis that matter ..

Chadwick's discovery clarified another mystery, that of the isotope, which had been raised by Rutherford and Soddy several decades earlier. Obviously, the number of protons in a nucleus did not change, but until the identification of the neutron, it had not been clear what it was that did change. At that point, it was understood that two atoms may have the same atomic numberand hence be of the same elementyet they may differ in number of neutrons, and thus be isotopes.

11/01/1975 · SpringerLink

Second, if Locke indeed identifies material bodies' realessences with the primary qualities of their constituent corpuscles,then that view of real essence together with his pessimism about thepossibility of ever discovering real essences imply pessimism about thecorpuscular hypothesis—specifically, about the claims that bodiesare made of corpuscles and that their observable qualities arereducible to the corpuscles' qualities. In the samepassages in which Locke seems to accept or assume these central tenetsof the corpuscular hypothesis—that observable bodies are made upof corpuscles and that those corpuscles have a restricted set ofinherent properties—he simultaneously appears very skepticalabout the hypothesis' promise to reduce observable propertiessuch as color and taste to that restricted set of primaryproperties.

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