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The plant needs both water and light to grow.

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This is called Hypogeal Germination.

Break the tip off a spiderwort leaf and wait for a drop of sap to appear, then touch it with your fingertip and notice how far you can stretch a thread of sap. This resemblance to a spider's silk may explain where its name came from. The gooey quality of the sap definitely explains its familiar nickname of "cow slobber"! While you are up close, look at the lo-ong purple hairs on the stamens!

This is called Epigeal Germination.

The stems, leaves and flowers of spiderworts are edible. The herbage may be eaten raw or added to stews. The flowers (which may be either pink, blue or rose-purple) make an attractive edible garnish for salads.

In this case, one special type of leaf is formed above the ground.

There is one other type of germination that is found only in a few tropical plants.

Actually pines have three kinds of leaves. The first appearafter the seed germinates and are called cotyledons or "seedleaves." These are small soft needle-shaped leaves and theirnumber varies from 3 or more (P. contorta, banksiana andsylvestris) to eighteen or more (P. lambertiana, sabiniana andmaximartinezii). As soon as the emerge, they are capable ofrespiration and photosynthesis. Shortly after the cotyledons comethe juvenile leaves which are shaped like the cotyledons and aresolitary and arranged in a spiral. These are usually shed inseveral weeks after the adult leaves, which have basal sheath andfascicular arrangement characteristic of the genus pinus, maketheir appearance.

The typical needle-shaped leaf is found in all species of thePinaceae family and it is the arrangement of these needles inbundles or fascicles that is the most characteristic feature ofthe genus Pinus. In some pines, e.g., P. strobus or P. palustris,the needle is shed after the second growing season, but in mostspecies they persist longer and in the extreme, up to 36 years inP. longaeva.

This special leaf is not a cotyledon, which remains under the ground.

Because the development of the shoot can not be seen, this type of germination is called Cleistogeal Germination from the Greek , which means hidden.

Plants with seeds covered with plant tissues, i.e., flowering plants, are included in the class angiosperms, which is the largest phylum of plants, containing more than 250,000 different plant species.

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  • They are also known as plants with 'naked seeds'.

  • They then turn green and form the first two leaves of the new plant.

  • Sometimes, they are found in multiples of either number.

    Cotyledon - Wikipedia

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Seeds can often last for several years, often in very tiny forms

As it is green, it also gathers food by photosynthesis, which enables the root and proper shoot to grow under the ground, so that the new plant is already established when the real shoot emerges.

Student Sheet 3 - Investigating Photosynthesis with …

The first leaf is a round dissected or frilly circular leaf with a central stalk like an umbrella, and its purpose is to protect the proper shoot from being trampled on or otherwise damaged before the new plant has enough resources to replace it.

Germination of a Seed - The Seed Site

It can then produce a root so that it can find its own water, followed by a shoot which develops from the plumule, which will allow it to absorb light.

Spiderwort - Great Plains Nature Center

The outer layer of the adult leaf is the waxy cuticle whichprotects the leaf from drying. In the cuticle are minute openingsknown as stomata and these permit the movement of carbon dioxideinto and oxygen from the leaf. In most haploxylon pines thestomata are on the ventral (lower) surfaces and the diploxylonpines have stomata on both ventral and dorsal surfaces. Thesestomata often form fine white streaks running along the length ofthe leaf. The leaves of the diploxylon pines are generallystiffer and arranged in fascicles of 2 or 3 needles(sometimesmore) and the haploxylon pines usually have softer needles infascicles of 5 needles(sometimes less). The basal sheath ofdiploxylon pines lasts for the life of the leaf whereas the basalsheath of the haploxylon pines is soon shed or, in the case ofthe pinyon and foxtail-bristlecone group (Section Parrya), itcurves back to form a "rosette."

Cotton's Journey - The Story of Cotton - THE PLANT

Click the icon for a USDA pdf file on this species for more info. Note it has ordinary-looking leaves and native spiderwort has grass-like leaves.

Growth Stages - Canola Council of Canada

The internal structure of the leaf is complex and includes aphotosynthesizing parenchyma ("chlorenchyma" ormesophyll) and resin canals which may be located just beneath thecuticle (often in the haploxlon pines) or varyingly deeper withinthe needle (often in the diploxylon pines). Centrally there arefibrovascular bundles, which form the basis of classification ofthe genus pinus into the subgenera Strobus (the"soft" or "white" pines) with one (haploxylon)fibrovascular bundle and Pinus (the "hard" or"yellow" pines) with two (diploxylon)fibrovascular bundles.** The resin canals connect with thestomata are involved in gas exchange and the fibrovascularbundles connect ultimately with the xylem involved with thetransport of nutrients, sugars and water between the top of thetree and the roots.

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