Creative Synthesis and Philosophic Method.
deals only with the latter's discussion of Bergson's intuition as philosophical method
Methods for the synthesis of qualitative research: a ..
Aside from the work on the creative environment for education, there has been much recent attention to the climate conducive for creativity and innovation from the business and industrial community (Ekvall, 1983; Amabile, 1984). The emphasis of this research has been to identify those factors, in certain organizations, that account for creative behavior. The findings from business and education are somewhat similar in that the climates in both types of organizations appear to be supportive of the intrinsic motivation hypothesis put forth by Amabile (1983a).
VanGundy (1984) identified three categories of factors that determine a group’s creative climate. They are: the external environment, the internal climate of the individuals within the group, and the quality of the interpersonal relationships among group members. He acknowledged that there would be considerable overlap among these categories and that each category would include suggestions that deal with both task and people oriented issues.
The following list of twenty suggestions provides a representative synthesis of the work done by Torrance (1962), Torrance and Myers (1970), MacKinnon (1978), Amabile (1984), and VanGundy (1984). The list is not totally comprehensive or conclusive. In short, the suggestions constitute recommendations to shape an atmosphere conductive to creativity and innovation. The list provides some necessary conditions (but not sufficient) for creativity:
Abstract: The Philosophical principles of a relationally focused Integrative Psychotherapy are described through the concepts of vulnerability, authenticity, and inter-subjective contact. Eight principles or therapist attitudes are outlined with clinical examples that illustrate the philosophy. These philosophical principles provide the foundation for a theory of methods.
Scientific method and philosophical analysis essay
Your annotations include all your notes on all the texts that you are ableto consult during your project. I will collect and evaluate all such notes. Asyou research, try to develop a method that works best for you (handouts onannotated bibliography suggest a couple of options). These may be handwrittenor you may wish to use a word processor, especially if you own a laptop that youcan bring to the library. You may annotate primary as well as secondary textsand texts from each of the collateral and theoretical areas of research youinvestigate. Your notes should reflect careful reading and analysis of eachtext.
Much of the research on creativity during the past thirty years has been produced through the efforts of various centers. One of the earliest was the University of Southern California where Guilford conducted the Aptitudes Research Project (Guilford, 1967). The Institute of Personality Assessment and Research was another early center for creativity research. It was started in 1949 at the Berkley campus of the University of California (MacKinnon, 1975). Another major center has been at the University of Utah, where the National Science Foundation sponsored research conferences on the Identification of Creative Scientific Talent (Taylor, 1963).
Of course, anyone doing any reading on creativity in education would come across Torrance’s work. He started his work at the University of Minnesota and then moved to the University of Georgia. The Georgia Studies of Creative Behavior are well known for their importance regarding education (Torrance, 1980). Perhaps no other researcher has done as much to illustrate the teachability of creativity than Torrance.
Other centers of research in creativity have a more recent history. The Creative Education Foundation (CEF), housed at the State University College at Buffalo, under the direction of Parnes, was responsible for the Creative Studies Project (Parnes and Noller, 1972) and the formation of the Interdisciplinary Center for Creative Studies. The founder of CEF, Alex Osborn, wished to bring a more creative trend to American education. During the 1970s, the Center for Creative Leadership at Greensboro, North Carolina was formed by the Smith-Richardson Foundation and has an active research program dealing with both creativity and leadership (Gryskiewicz, 1980). One of the more recent centers has been at the Harvard Graduate School of Education where Project Zero has provided a number of important research reports (Perkins, 1981; Gardner, 1982).
In terms of educational implications of all this creativity research, there are two major points to form the broad context for our examination. The first is that education can do something about nurturing our creativity. Torrance (1981, p. 99) made the following assertion:
Resources for Writers: Synthesis Writing
VARIETIES OF EDUCATIONAL USE
There has been a general increase in research and writing in the area of creativity despite the many different approaches to defining it; the differences in assumptions, presuppositions, and contexts; and the differences in research methodologies and strategies among and within groups of various orientations. Given this complex array of literature, it is not surprising to find some individuals who feel creativity is something mystical and, as such, too difficult to understand and analyze. There are others who assert that creativity is magical and shouldn’t be explained “lest we lose it”. Then there are those who suggest that creativity must be linked with madness and, as such, this sickness should be avoided (along with other forms of pathological behavior)!
Those concerned with educational and training implications for creativity hold a different point of view regarding this confusing state of affairs. This view of creativity suggests that all people have, to varying levels and in varying styles, the potential to be creative. This view rejects the notions of creativity as magical, mystical or mad, and asserts that it is the legitimate domain for those concerned with optimizing human potential. The assumption that creativity is a natural, human resource leads to the educational practice of dealing with the concept in three basic ways. The applications include weaving creativity into the existing curriculum, teaching creative thinking and problem solving skills directly, and using creativity in the process of planning for learning.
The first, and most ubiquitous method for dealing with creativity appears to be through weaving it into the existing curriculum. This method includes applying what is known about creativity into the subjects and existing instructional programs. An example of this type of activity is the inclusion of questions and suggestions for activities to foster creativity in elementary school reading programs. There are many examples across disciplines and grade levels, where creativity is explicitly planned for within specific subjects and grade levels.
The second approach to using what we know is the direct teaching of the skills, methods, and processes associated with creativity. This approach includes separate units of instruction, courses or programs designed to enhance creativity. Many programs for academically talented students follow this approach.
Another method employed by those that hold the fact that creativity is human, is the use of the processes and skills in planning for learning. This approach includes using what is known about creativity to actually plan lessons or units of instruction. This planning occurs independently, with other professionals or with the learners themselves.
All these approaches may be combined and used together in varying degrees. They are not entirely separate, nor should they be! However, what does appear to be rather consistent in all approaches is that the planning must be deliberate and explicit to foster creative thinking skills (Isaksen, 1983; Isaksen and Parnes, 1985; Whitman, 1983).
Another common thread through all three approaches is the belief that spending time and energy working toward creativity is worthwhile. If instructional resources and time are focused away from the regular program, what will be lost? As long as the new focus is on creative learning, the loss is non-existent. In fact, gains can be found in reading and mathematics (Brandt, 1982), SAT scores (Worsham and Auston, 1983), and in overall school achievement (Johnson, Maruyama, Johnson, Nelson, and Skon, 1983).
These findings ought not to be very surprising as they are consistent with some very well designed and established research studies. The most comprehensive of these was the Eight-Year Study (Aikin, 1942). The Commission of the Relation of School and College of the Progressive Education Association was concerned that the “traditional subjects of the curriculum had lost much of their vitality and significance: (p. 6). The Commission was aware of the pervasive attitude within the secondary schools, that creative learning was on the fringe of the educational experience. The creative energies of students were seldom released and developed. Aiken (1942) described the condition in the following manner:
Classical phenomenologists practiced some three distinguishablemethods. (1) We describe a type of experience just as we find it in ourown (past) experience. Thus, Husserl and Merleau-Ponty spoke of puredescription of lived experience. (2) We interpret a type of experienceby relating it to relevant features of context. In this vein, Heideggerand his followers spoke of hermeneutics, the art of interpretation incontext, especially social and linguistic context. (3) We analyze theform of a type of experience. In the end, all the classicalphenomenologists practiced analysis of experience, factoring outnotable features for further elaboration.
Methods of Philosophical Inquiry in ..
The core of an essay on philosophical method this ..
The Philosophical Dictionary: Or, the Opinions of Modern Philosophers on Metaphysical, Moral, and Political Subjects
Philosophical Dictionary: Statement-Synthetic
Creativity - Wikipedia
Philosophical Dictionary: Tarski-Thoreau
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed
The System of Categories in Philosophical Thought
When designing a research study it is important to decide what theoutcome (data) the study will produce then select the best methodology toproduce that desired information.
Philosophy - New World Encyclopedia
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One of the factors that contributes to the complexity of the conceptions o creativity is that it is an interdisciplinary phenomenon. Certainly, no discipline can claim to have exclusive rights to creativity. Studies of creativity are found in the arts (Barron and Welsch, 1952; Getzels and Csikszentmihalyi, 1976), as well as in the sciences (Mansfield and Busse, 1981; Taylor, Smith and Ghiselin, 1963).
There are many possible contexts within which to study creativity (Isaksen, Stein, Hills and Gryskiewicz, 1984). One of the earliest focal areas was the study of exceptional talent or genius (Alberts, 1983; Cox, 1926; Galton, 1869; Goertzel, Goertzel and Goertzel, 1978; Simonton, 1984; Terman, 1954). Related to this area was the study of great individuals and the method of thought which permitted innovative breakthroughs (Gruber, 1981; Kuhn, 1970; Wallas, 1926; Wertheimer, 1945).
Creativity has been studied in managerial, business and industrial areas (Basadur, 1981; Ekvall and Parnes, 1984; Johansson, 1975); in disciplines such as engineering (Arnold, 1959; Rubenstein, 1975); mathematics (Helson and Crutchfield, 1970; Schoenfeld, 1982; Schoenfeld and Hermann, 1982), philosophy (Hausman, 1984; Lipman, Sharp and Oscanyan, 1980), physics (Larkin, 1980), and English (Elbow, 1983; Longer, 1982; Olson, 1984); and in teacher preservice and inservice educational programs (Brooks, 1984; Gibney and Meiring, 1983; Juntune, 1979; Krulik and Rudnik, 1982; Martin, 1984) as well as in the general counseling process (Heppner, 1978).
The educational interest in creativity stems from a vast collection of writers and extends far beyond those areas already cited. One current label to use for this area of interest is the “teaching of thinking”. Two entire recent issues of Educational Leadership (Vol. 42, nos. 1 and 3, 1984), the official journal of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, have focused on the teaching of thinking skills! In short, there is continued and extensive interest, writing, research and discussion regarding ways to effectively improve the thinking of learners at all levels.
Aside from being studied within specific disciplines and contexts, the research of Torrance (1974), Biondi and Parnes (1976), Khatena (1982), and Amabile (1983) indicates that creativity can be assessed systematically and scientifically. A related and extremely important finding is that creativity can be enhanced through deliberate instructional procedures (Goor and Rapoport, 1977; Heppner, Neal and Larson, 1984; Mansfield, Busse, and Krepelka, 1978; Parnes and Noller, 1972; Reese, Parnes, Treffinger, and Kaltsounis, 1976; Rose and Lin, 1984; Torrance, 1972).
Another reason for the complexity of the field of study of creativity is due to its link with a wide array of theoretical perspectives (Treffinger, Isaksen and Firestein, 1983) as well as with the concepts of problem solving and creative learning. Guilford (1977) defined problem solving as facing a situation with which you are not fully prepared to deal. Problem solving occurs when there is a need to go beyond the information given, thus there is a need for new intellectual activity. Guilford (1977) reported that:
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