A schematic representation of the deep drawing tools is given in
Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the deep drawing tools (Wallmeier et al. 2015b)
Table 3. Rupture in the Deep-Drawing Process and their Explanation
The applicability of the developed friction model in a FEM simulation has been demonstrated with a cup drawing FEM simulation which shows the expected evolution of friction conditions during the progression of a deep drawing process.",
All deep-drawing experiments were performed using the equipment at Technische Universität Dresden, Germany, which was described in detail by Hauptmann and Majschak (2011) and Hauptmann (2010). The deep-drawing tools are denoted as the punch, die, and blankholder throughout this publication; the die representing the female part, and the punch representing the male part.
The production of hollow-ware by deep drawing and …
The coefficient of friction is shown to reduce during the deep drawing processes due to the lubricant pressure generation if the operation conditions and the applied lubricant amount favour hydrodynamic effects.
The aim of this paper was to analyze the occurrence of rupture during the deep-drawing process of paperboard. Ruptures were classified and assigned to a specific causation. An extensive parameter analysis, covering the most important process parameters and geometrical properties of the deep-drawing tools, was investigated, and the logistic regression model was used to describe the experimental data.
The occurrence of rupture in deep-drawing of …
Some of the most common outcomes in deep drawing process are tearing and wrinkling or the formation of uneven height at the top rim of a drawn part due to the material anisotropy. This project involves experimental and numerical studies of the die design to investigate the formability of sheet metal. The main objective of this project is to obtain the best deep drawing parameters in reducing wrinkle and tearing during a cylindrical cup deep draw process. The project begins with the die design using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. The project is continued with modelling of finite element model (FEM) using simulation software. The variables for this project are die clearance, die radius, and blank holding force. The constant of this simulation are thickness of sheet metal and punch size to deform the material. All the data from finite element software showed the different value of displacement. From the data documentation, the discussion and result were concluded to determine the effect of different parameters on wrinkling and tearing phenomenon during sheet metal forming process.
As a result of the remarkable demands on electronic and other portable compact devices, the need to produce various miniaturized parts, particularly those made from metallic sheet is growing. In other words, in order for manufacturing companies to stay in competition, they are required to develop new and innovative fabricating processes to produce micro components with more complex features and a high standard of quality and functionality. Microforming is a micro fabrication process that can be employed efficiently for mass production with the advantages of greatly minimizing material waste and producing highly accurate product geometry. However, since the clearance between the rigid tools, i.e. punch and die, utilized in microforming techniques is relatively very small, there is a high risk of damaging the tools during the forming operations. Therefore, the use of forming tools made of flexible materials in sheet metal forming processes at micro scale has powerful potential advantages. The main advantages include a reduction in the production cost, eliminating the alignment and mismatch difficulties, and also the creation of parts with different geometrical shapes using the same flexible tool. As the workpiece is in contact with a flexible surface, this process can significantly improve the quality of the obtained products. Despite these clear advantages, micro flexible forming techniques are currently only utilized in very limited industrial applications. One reason for this is that the deformation behaviour and failure mode of sheet metals formed at micro scale are not yet well understood. Additionally, the experience-based knowledge of the micro-forming process parameters is not sufficient, particularly when flexible tools are used. Hence, to advance this technology and to improve the production quality of formed micro parts, more investigation of the key process parameters related to the material deformation are needed. The main contribution of this work is the development of a novel technique for achieving micro deep drawing of stainless steel 304 sheets using a flexible die and where an initial gap (positive or negative) is adopted between the blank holder plate and an adjustment ring utilized in the size-scaled forming systems developed for this purpose. The interesting point here is that this study presents the first attempt of employing flexible material as a forming die tool in the micro deep drawing technology to produce micro metallic cups at different scaling levels. Polyurethane rubber materials are employed in this study for the forming flexible die with various Shore A hardness. Also, the stainless steel 304 sheets utilized for the workpieces have different initial thicknesses. Various parameters that have a significant influence on the sheet formability at micro scale are carefully considered, these include initial gap value, rubber material properties, initial blank thickness, initial blank diameter, friction coefficients at various contact interfaces, diameter and height of the rubber die and process scaling factor. The size effect category of process dimension was also taken into account using similarity theory. Three size-scaled micro deep drawing systems were developed correspondingly to three different scaling factors. In each case, finite element simulations for the intended micro drawing systems are performed with the aim of identifying optimum conditions for the novel forming methodology presented in this thesis. The numerical models are built using the known commercial code Abaqus/Standard. To verify the microforming methodology adopted for the proposal technique as well as to validate the predictions obtained from simulations, an appropriate number of micro deep drawing experiments are conducted. This is achieved using a special experimental set up, designed and manufactured to fulfil the various requirements of the micro-forming process design procedure. The new knowledge provided by this work provides, for the first time, a predictive capability for micro deep drawing using flexible tools that in turn could lead to a commercially viable production scale process.
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Deep Drawing With Variable Blankholder Force(2008) - …
Some of the most common outcomes in deep drawing process are tearing and wrinkling or the formation ..
Finite Element Simulation of Deep Drawing of Aluminium Alloy Sheets
DRAWING OF SHEET METAL; METAL MOVEMENT IN DRAWING OPERATION; TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF DRAWING PROCESS;
Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, ..
The main objective in this master’s thesis is to optimize the quality of sheet metal parts after deep drawing
/ Friction modeling on multiple scales for Deep ..
Approximately 17 million tons of packaging waste was incurred in Germany in 2013. Meanwhile, 88.2% of the 7.8 million tons of paper and paperboard waste and only 49.4% of the 2.9 million tons of plastic waste (Schüler 2015) was recycled. Because packaging waste and recycling are likely to be challenging areas for the next decade, the importance of improving the applicability of paper and paperboard to replace synthetic polymers is imminent. The deep-drawing process of paperboard has been applied for almost a century, since its first detailed investigation by Scherer (1932). On the other hand, the superior formability of synthetic polymers has led to their widespread application above paperboard. However, recent scientific progress has widened the capabilities of paperboard in forming processes and makes paperboard or laminates with a paperboard layer a serious alternative to packaging materials based on synthetic polymers.
A Numerical Simulation Study of Deep Drawing Testing …
Prior to the industrial production of novel deep-drawn packaging products, boundaries for process and material parameters have to be investigated to minimize waste and to ensure the reliability of the production process. For deep drawing of sheet metal, analysis of boundaries for parameters to prevent the production of rejected parts due to quality issues like wrinkles, ruptures and spring back have been conducted already decades ago (Siebel 1954). The primary tool for predicting material failure in deep-drawing is the forming limit diagram, in accordance with the ISO 12004-2 (2008) testing standard. The first attempts to determine the forming limit curves for metal experimentally and theoretically were conducted by Keeler and Backhofen (1964) and Marciniak and Kuczynski (1967). Meanwhile, finite element simulations were widely used in the prediction of the occurrence of rupture during deep-drawing, using models that accounted for the effects of voids in the material (Saxena and Dixit 2011), temperature (Chen et al. 2003), or ductile fracture (Lou et al. 2012). Unfortunately, fundamental research has not been conducted in the forming of paperboard to a comparable extent.
Deep Drawing | Yield (Engineering) | Deformation …
The production of paperboard packaging components in fast-running machines requires reliability of the production process. Boundaries for the process parameters and constraints for the geometry of the tools require investigation to determine dependable configurations. This paper aimed to investigate the relationships between process parameters, tool geometry, and the occurrence of rupture in the deep-drawing process of paperboard. Different types of ruptures in various phases of the process were distinguished and linked to their specific cause. An extensive experimental investigation with multiple variables of influence was conducted. A logistic regression model was used to describe the experimental data and was statistically validated. The blankholder force was found to be the most influential parameter. Interactions between the parameters blankholder force, punch velocity, and punch diameter were recognized. A high punch velocity can reduce the probability of rupture when the punch diameter is adjusted.
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