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Identity and analytical methods

Photosynthesis: Crash Course Biology #8 - YouTube

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Production, uses, and sources of exposure

The authors concluded that structural chromosome changes induced by toluene exposure could persist for up to 2 years after exposure, but that after this time, the number of gaps and SCEs dropped to the control level.

Kinetics, biotransformation, and biological monitoring

(1976) Quantitative determination of various gas-phase components of the side-stream smoke of cigarettes in the room air as a contribution to the problem of passive smoking.

Effects on experimental animals

Effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms in the environment

(1981) Non-mutagenicity of toluene, o-, m-, and p-xylene, o-methylbenzyl alcohol, and o-methylbenzyl sulfate in the Ames assay.

(1977) The acute toxicity of six monocyclic aromatic crude oil components to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and bay shrimp (Crago franciscorum).

Conclusions and recommendations

IDENTITY, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, ANALYTICAL METHODS

Rabbits administered sc 300 mg toluene/kg body weight for 6 weeks or 700 mg/kg body weight for 9 weeks in rabbits did not show any effects on DNA synthesis in bone-marrow cells or peripheral blood elements (Speck & Moeschlin, 1968).

Rat In a short-term oral study, female rats fed up to 590 mg toluene/kg body weight by intubation, for periods of up to 6 months, did not exhibit toxicological effects as determined by gross appearance, growth, blood counts, analysis for blood-urea nitrogen, final body and organ weights, bone-marrow counts, or histopathological examination of adrenals, pancreas, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and testes (Wolf et al., 1956).

Physical and chemical properties
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  • SOURCES OF HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE

    Biology Lesson 9 - Whitmore School

  • ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT, DISTRIBUTION, AND TRANSFORMATION

    Student will learn why cells need energy

  • Transport and distribution between media

    Student will understand the relationship of light to energy

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ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE

The acute and short-term effects of toluene can be summarized as follows: - levels up to 375 mg/m3 for a few hours showed subjective complaints of fatigue and drowsiness, but no observable impairment of reaction time or coordination; - up to 750 mg/m3 for 8 h resulted in mild throat and eye irritation, some impairment of cognitive function, headache, dizziness, and sensation of intoxication; - up to 1500 mg/m3 for 8 h, besides the symptoms already mentioned, caused lachrymation, skin paraesthesia, gross signs of incoordination, and mental confusion.

Occupational exposure during manufacture, formulation, or use

Acute and Short-Term Effects on Man Based on the available studies, the odour threshold for toluene in human beings is estimated to be 9.4 mg/m3 (2.5 ppm).

EFFECTS ON ORGANISMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

In the case of daily exposure to high concentrations, for instance, under occupational conditions, significant uptake of toluene into lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue and the central nervous system, occurs.

Population and ecosystem effects

(1982) quite clearly showed that the frequency of chromosome aberrations (and also of SCEs) is increased in cultured blood lymphocytes of smokers as compared with non-smokers.

Effects on the abiotic environment

These effects are reversible on cessation of exposure, but become increasingly severe and persistent with increasing concentration and/or duration of exposure.

Inhalation 7.1.1.1 Rat 7.1.1.2 Dog 7.1.1.3 Human volunteers

The authors state that in the previously published studies too few metaphases (100 cells per individual) were analysed and that the negative result of Forni et al.

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