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describe the second messenger hypothesis of …

Describe the specific "Red Queen" hypothesis and discuss Lively's test of the hypothesis Chapter 8 in the third edition

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Second messenger system - Wikipedia

This paper also predicts why our posthuman descendants might want to simulate our universe: to test out string theory. Currently, string theory is overpowered by a vast landscape of possible versions of string theory, and scientists haven’t figured out which one might describe our universe. Detailed simulations would allow posthuman races to test hypotheses about these universes, ruling out possible versions of string theory to zero in on the one that describes their real universe.

Second Messenger Systems Flashcards | Quizlet

Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have proven utility for the highly efficient intracellular delivery of bioactive cargoes that include peptides, proteins, and oligonucleotides. The many strategies developed to utilize CPPs solely as pharmacokinetic modifiers necessarily requires them to be relatively inert. Moreover, it is feasible to combine one or multiple CPPs with bioactive cargoes either by direct chemical conjugation or, more rarely, as non-covalent complexes. In terms of the message-address hypothesis, this combination of cargo (message) linked to a CPP (address) as a tandem construct conforms to the sychnological organization. More recently, we have introduced the term bioportide to describe monomeric CPPs that are intrinsically bioactive. Herein, we describe the design and biochemical properties of two rhegnylogically organized monometic CPPs that collectively modulate a variety of biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Thus, camptide, a cell-penetrant sequence located within the first intracellular loop of a human calcitonin receptor, regulates cAMP-dependent processes to modulate insulin secretion and viral infectivity. Nosangiotide, a bioportide derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase, potently inhibits many aspects of the endothelial cell morphology and movement and displays potent anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. We conclude that, due to their capacity to translocate and target intracellular signaling events, bioportides represent an innovative generic class of bioactive agents.

Lecture #3 Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.

Describe Haldane�s rule (including the evidence that it is pervasive) and discuss Muller�s hypothesis to explain it.

Even an experiment as carefully controlled as the one just described could not be regarded as being decisive...not, that is, if its outcome was corroborative. It could of course refute the Whorf hypothesis, and would do so if no discernible Whorfian effects emerged, or did not arrange themselves in the predicted pattern: largest among the Loglan experimentals, second largest among the Chinese-learning subjects, and smallest among the French-learning subjects. In this (happy) event, we could still not regard the Whorfian thesis as having been established...even temporarily. For a very large and potentially powerful factor would remain unexamined; and that is what might be called the "host effect": the causal influence of the host language and culture on the effects we had succeeded in capturing. In our case, of course, that would be the North American English one, assuming that only monolingual English-speaking American and Canadian subjects had been enlisted for the first experiment.

If this hypothetical situation where we are in a simulation is true as you describe it, then the fact that we are referring to the simulator’s creator(s) as “God” and worshipping them as divine beigns rather than acknowledging them as a collection of scientifically-minded judicators means that such a perversion of “the truth” has already occurred.

Signal transduction - Wikipedia

Describe how investigators tested the hypothesis that females practice active mate choice in these species.

Let me first make clear that the containment vs. the differential-enablement interpretations of the Whorf hypothesis are not rival hypotheses in the usual scientific sense of that phrase. That is, the two models of the origin of Whorfian phenomena are not incompatible with one another in the sense that they may not both be true at once. As applied to cultural differentiation, for example, as this is sensed by the traveler and described by the ethnologist, the restrictive interpretation of the Whorfian hypothesis (Whorf's own interpretation, in the main, although enablement is a recurrent minor theme of his analyses) generates an hypothesis that language A of culture A' is sufficiently different in some structural feature--say its tense system--from language B of culture B', that the domains of the grammatically permissible in the two languages A and B differ in both size and extension, and in ways that explain at least some of the content differences--that is, differences in beliefs, techniques and values--that characterize the two cultures A' and B'. In other words, the containment hypothesis argues that the observed A'-B' cultural differences are at least partly due to the differences in the "shapes" of the two linguistic bottles, A and B, in which the two cultures have been--and still are--contained. But it must be emphasized that there is nothing in such a containment-oriented explanation of the observed phenomena that is logically inconsistent with, or dependent on there not being, language-related facilitations also at work in the mental lives of speakers of A that are not at work in those of B, and vice versa and that these also explain some of the differences between A' and B'.

Briefly describe the two hypotheses for why natural populations are more variable than had been expected. STUDY QUESTION FROM Kerry Kilburn, Old Dominion University

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describe the second messenger …

Describe Wikelski et al.'s studies of Galapagos marine iguanas and explain how they arrived at and tested the hypothesis that sexual size dimorphism is sexually selected via direct male combat.

Hormones | Boundless Anatomy and Physiology

There is little direct, descriptive evidence to support the Chomskian notion of a universal human grammar, at least not one with a scope wide enough to account for any but a tiny proportion of human utterance forms. But the failure of the Whorf hypothesis in an experimental setting, such as the one we have just been discussing, would certainly renew interest in the possibility that, in some new and experimentally sharpened sense, Chomsky might well turn out to be right.

Hormones are typically secreted into systemic circulation

The discourse of diabolical witchcraft was often invoked by ordinary people to prosecute neighbors for petty jealousies and resentments characteristic of small-scale societies. The craze was restricted almost exclusively to western Europe and its colonies. Since diabolism is virtually meaningless outside a Christian conceptual framework, it could not spread to non-Christian areas. Although the Eastern Christian church shared the same beliefs in the powers of Satan as the Western church, it experienced no witch craze. The absence of the witch craze in the Eastern church illustrates the hypothesis that for a craze to break out, three elements are required: (1) the appropriate intellectual structure; (2) the mediation of that structure from the elite to the people at large; and (3) marked social tension and fear.

Second Week of Development; Third Week of …

What kind of hypothesis is Loglan good for testing? Well; both kinds. Loglan is both enabling and domain-enhancing. At certain points the design of Loglan incorporates restrictive hypotheses by removing many of the domain restrictions which Whorf described, or at least by pushing them outward in domain-augmenting directions. The loglanist will know what these are; I hardly need to mention them. But chief among them are the absence of any obligatory inflections on the Loglan predicate, and of any grammatically significant distinctions among them. At the same time, in the same design-for-a-language, enabling hypotheses are also served. For example, the intricate but instantly decipherable connective apparatus of Loglan is plainly meant to facilitate the logical transformations. And the fact that Loglan predicates, much like Chinese ones, may be freely combined in literally any order is meant not only to remove domain restrictions of a metaphysical kind on metaphor-making, but also, and not altogether incidentally, to facilitate the poetic richness of metaphor in the language as well.

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