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B.R.S.M — An organic chemistry blog

Digital Art / Getty Images - transition metal with element symbol Pd and atomic number 46. - property of material characterized by being attracted to a magnetic field. - atom that undergoes radioactive decay, resulting in one or more daughter atoms. - nuclide that decays into a specific daughter nuclide during radioactive decay. - the pressure a gas in a mixture of gases would exert if it occupied the volume by itself, at the same temperature. - small distinct solids suspended in a gas or liquid. (PPM) - unit of concentration that is one part solute per one million parts solvent. - SI unit of pressure equal to the force of 1 Newton per square meter. - principle that says no two electrons or other fermions can have identical quantum numbers in the same atom or molecule. - percent by mass of each element in a compound. - percent ratio of actual yield divided by theoretical yield. - describes two atoms or groups of atoms in the same plane as each other with respect to a single bond. - horizontal row of the periodic table; elements with the same highest unexcited electron energy level. - law that states the properties of elements recur in a predictable and systematic way when they are arranged by increasing atomic number. - tabular arrangement of elements by increasing atomic number, ordered according to trends in recurring properties. - regular variation in the properties of elements with increasing atomic number. - recurring variations in element properties with increasing atomic number due to trends in atomic structure. - a polyatomic anion with molecular formula O22-. - crude oil; natural flammable hydrocarbon mixture found in geologic formations. - measure of the hydrogen ion concentration, reflecting how acidic or basic a substance is. - distinct form of matter with uniform chemical and physical properties. - change in the state of matter of a sample (e.g., liquid to vapor). - chart showing the phase of a substance according to temperature and pressure. - an organic pH indicator, C20H14O4. - compound that changes color over a range of pH values. - Phlogiston was believed to be a substance all combustible matter contained and released when burned.

B.R.S.M. — A blog about total synthesis, organic synthesis and chemical history

Abstract:
The current interest of our research group is largely focused on the development and understanding of precipitated crystalline organometallic compounds. We are placing a strong emphasis in the study of the synthetic procedures, the morphology, and on the structural determination of such compounds. Special importance is engaged in the preparation coordination polymers crystallized from solutions of supercritical CO2, (scCO2), where the use of a co-solvent is occasionally employed depending on reagents solubility [1-3]. The correct selection of experimental conditions in the scCO2 reactive crystallization technique, allows a precipitation known from other methodologies, as well as new crystalline phases. This procedure leads to the crystallization of stable hierarchical nanoestructures involving micro and mesoporosity. As the preparation of the crystalline materials is carried out in scCO2, these obtained with microporous structures were recovered activated, i.e., with open volume, since the removal of any guest molecules from the framework is carried out by simple depressurization. This method is expected to have many potential applications in the development of green crystallization techniques for coordination polymers synthesis.

Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties and …

Abstract:
Inorganic semiconductors have recently drawn a huge attention due to their low cost of synthesis and multifunctional applications. Since nickel and titanium oxides have shown to exhibit unique properties separately, nickel titanate was synthesized demonstrating synergistic behavior. Afterwards, it was linked with the reduced graphene oxide, which displays large surface area, high electrical conduction, good electron transport rates and improves dispersity of the inorganic semiconductors. The proposed composite material was utilized for the construction of the glucose sensitive electrochemical sensor of the increased electrocatalytic performance. Applicability of the designed biosensor was shown towards glucose determination in human body fluids.

Abstract:
Inorganic fertilizers along with high yielding varieties have contributed immensely for success of green revolution. Increasing pressure towards food production globally demands unconscientious fertilizer usage in future as well. Nitrogenous fertilizers are the extensively used fertilizers but also suffer huge losses from agriculture ecosystem due to faster rate of release which is not synchronized with crop demand. Thus resulting in low nitrogen use efficiency. In order to have a sustained release of nitrogen from fertilizer, nanoparticle coated with urea is an effective option. We report urea coated hydroxyapatite based nanofertilizer and its performance on aerobic paddy. In this study hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles were synthesized by adding orthophosphoric acid to calcium hydroxide solution under constant vigorous stirring. Saturated urea solution was added to the HA particle suspension and was stirred continuously for 12 hours for surface modification. The urea modified HA particles were washed and dried at 65ºC. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA) and urea coated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (UHA) were characterized using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Nitrogen content of UHA was analyzed using Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen content of UHA particles was found to be 36% and Zeta potential was 165.0 mV indicating stable nanodispersion. PXRD pattern of UHA particles indicated the presence of peaks due to hydroxyapatite and urea. SEM images of UHA particles exhibited oblong structures resembling rice grains with diameter less than 90 nm. FTIR spectroscopy showed prominent peaks around γmax/cm–1 1041 indicating phosphate group in hydroxyapatite and γmax/cm–1 3336 and 3432 indicating presence of urea. Synthesized nanofertilizer was evaluated on aerobic paddy under completely randomized design and was compared with recommended dose of conventional urea (100kgN/ha) in aerobic paddy. Nanofertilizer at 25% of recommended dose recorded highest grain yield. Nanofertilizer@ 50% dose showed similar performace to 100% dose of conventional urea. The results indicate amount of fertilizer application into soil can be reduced than regular dosage with nanofertilizer without affecting the yield. This will reduce environmental pollution of water and soil without compromising agricultural production.

Agronomy | An Open Access Journal from MDPI

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    Oriental Journal of Chemistry is a peer reviewed quarterly research journal of pure and applied chemistry

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    Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties and new application opportunities

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