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- our question is, are these two populations different?

The Development Hypothesis (1852) - Victorian Web

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A series of older studies provide a still valid general picture of the conversion of chloral hydrate to its two major metabolites, trichloroethanol and TCA.

 In other words, we want to be able to make claims about populations based on samples.

Colon cancer risks and estimated cumulative exposure to trihalomethanes in Wisconsin (USA)a Lifetime THM exposure Odds ratiob 95% CI (µg/litre-year) <137 1.0 137-410 1.1 0.7-1.8 >410 0.7 0.4-1.2 a From Young et al.

Okay, let's formalize this procedure.

There are four types of validity that can be discussed in relation to research and statistics.

Hara A, Yamamoto H, Deyashiki Y, Nakayama T, Oritani H, & Sawada H (1991) Aldehyde dismutation catalyzed by pulmonary carbonyl reductase: kinetic studies of chloral hydrate metabolism to trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol.

Harada K, Ichiyama T, Ikeda H, Ishihara T, & Yoshida K (1997) An autopsy case of acute chloroform intoxication after intermittent inhalation for years.

Hpothesis testing - the big picture view (more details will follow)

In other words, is there an effect of taking stats (on comprehending the paper)?

(1992a) 0.5 104 Liver 12/24 0.5 15/24 0.63 B6C3F1 (F) 0 52 Liver 1/40 0.03 0/40 0 Pereira (1996) 0.28 52 Liver 0/40 0 0/40 0 0.93 52 Liver 3/20 0.20 0/20 0 2.8 52 Liver 7/20 0.45 1/20 0.1 0 81 Liver 2/90 0.02 2/90 0.02 0.28 81 Liver 3/50 0.06 0/50 0 0.93 81 Liver 7/28 0.32 1/28 0.04 2.8 81 Liver 16/19 5.6 5/19 0.37 Table 15.

(continued) Species Dose Duration Tumour HN & HAa HCb Reference (sex) (g/litre) (weeks) site Incidence Tumour/n Incidence Tumour/n (multiplicity) (multiplicity) Rats F344 (M) 0 60 Liver 0/7 0 0/7 0 Richmond et al.

Each of the four types of validity will be briefly defined and described below.
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  • Let's look at each of these steps in more detail

    Hypothesis Definition, Checklist, and Examples

  • This is especially true when we are dealing with samples.

    Developmental hypothesis - ResearchGate

  • There are many potential threats to internal validity.

    Get expert answers to your questions in Methods and more on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.

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what are the possible conclusions?

Significant reductions in absolute and relative liver weights in F0 females and F1 males and females, reduced absolute brain weights in F1 and F2, and a decrease in the maximum response to an auditory startle stimulus on postnatal day 24 but not at postnatal day 60 were noted in the 300 and 70 mg/litre groups.

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At 300 mg/litre, reduced pup survival, reduced body weight at birth and throughout lactation in F1 and F2, lower thymus and spleen weights in both generations, lowered incidence of pups exhibiting a normal righting reflex, delays in sexual development in males and females in F1 and F2, and lower red blood cell parameters in F1 were noted.

T2 - American Journal of Human Biology

Minor changes in red blood cell parameters in the F1 generation were seen at 35 and 70 mg/litre, but these appear to be within normal ranges based on historical data.

Consider the following sample mean distributions.

There were reductions in water consumption, food consumption and body weight gain in both sexes in all generations at various times throughout the experiment, primarily in the 70 and 300 mg/litre groups; these were attributed to a lack of palatability of the water.

so how do we interpret these graphs?

The NOAEL in this study was 35 mg/litre (2.9 mg/kg of body weight per day), based on lower auditory startle amplitude, decreased absolute brain weight in the F1 and F2 generations, and altered liver weights in two generations.

JO - American Journal of Human Biology

For the F1 animals, doses were 0, 2.9, 5.9 or 22.7 mg of chlorite per kg of body weight per day for males and 0, 3.8, 7.9 or 28.6 mg of chlorite per kg of body weight per day for females.

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