The Stress Diathesis Model of Addiction – On …
People with the DRD2 A1 variant of the gene have fewer dopamine receptors, and also seem more vulnerable to addictions.
The Neurobiological Development of Addiction | …
Behaviourist theories are reductionist, and so will ignore social or genetic factors which may make a person more likely to display addictive behaviour.
A number of culprits have been implicated in the etiology of depression. They seemingly span all levels of analysis and include genetic, biological, physiological, cognitive, and social factors. Cognitive and social factors routinely have been considered primary suspects, kept in the lineup by theorists who have adopted a diathesis-stress perspective to explain depression onset. (The diathesis-stress model views psychological problems to be the result of stress affecting an individual who has a pre-existing vulnerability for developing a specific kind of problem.)
The Neurobiological Development of Addiction
Can you apply this to addiction to help explain addictive behaviour?
Operant conditioning is most effective at describing the maintenance of the addiction (rather than being an explanation of its original cause).
Many of these you will know already (remember that evaluations of biological explanations tend to be very similar for all conditions), but write down two positive and two negative evaluations for both genetic and neurochemical explanations.
Glossary - diathesis-stress theory of addiction
Etiology. Alcoholics are emotionally impaired people who drink to compensatefor their inadequacies and then, because of their body chemistry become addictedto alcohol, creating a circular process of further inadequacy and furtherdrinking.
One such gene is called the DRD2 gene (or dopamine receptor density 2 gene).
The DRD2 gene codes for the number of dopamine receptors available in the mesolimbic dopamine system.
diathesis-stress theory of addiction
Diathesis stress component - Addiction Philosophy
Gottesman s insight led to the diathesis stress model of schizophrenia the first GxE model of psychopathology
Disease model of addiction | Addiction and Mental Health
The etiological schema that guides the organization of the reviewed findings is the diathesis-stress model.
Diathesis-Stress Theory of Addiction
This aspect of the theory is conceptualized usefully as a diathesisstress ..
A Stress-Diathesis Examination of Internet Addiction
Empirical support for the applicability of the diathesis-stress model is robust and has warranted preventive interventions targeting those at highest risk of developing negative health outcomes. For example, psychological interventions address the way a person with high vulnerability appraises and responds to stressful life events. Researchers seek to refine measures of vulnerability, provide suggestions for preventive strategies, and gather empirical evidence for the effectiveness of preventive interventions. Overall, the diathesis-stress model has provided researchers and clinicians with a framework in which knowledge about biological, environmental, and psychological processes can be used to decrease the likelihood that an illness will develop or reoccur.
1 A STRESS DIATHESIS EXAMINATION OF INTERNET ADDICTION: ..
One of the most prominent diathesis-stress theories was developed by APS Fellow Aaron Beck, who proposed that depression onset may be attributed largely to negative cognitions and corresponding patterns of information processing. Beck’s model hypothesizes that individuals who experience adversity in childhood develop negative self-schemas that involve concepts like loss and inadequacy. These schemas are thought to remain dormant until an individual experiences a stressful life event that is reminiscent of the original stressor, at which point the schemas become activated.
Doctoral of Philosophy A STRESS DIATHESIS EXAMINATION OF INTERNET ..
Some people are biologically vulnerable to certain psychiatric disorders: bipolar disorder, major depression, schizophrenia, or anxiety disorders (panic, post-traumatic stress), for example. This vulnerability is determined early in life by a combination of factors, including genetics, prenatal nutrition and stress, birth complications, and early experiences in childhood (such as abuse or the loss of a parent). This is why some families are more likely to have members with a particular psychiatric disorder. Although vulnerability to psychiatric disorders is primarily biological in nature, people can take steps to reduce their vulnerability, including taking medication and not using alcohol or drugs. It's also worth noting that the greater a person's vulnerability to a particular disorder, the earlier it is likely to develop, and the more severe it may become.
The defining feature of addiction is
Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the NIH, Nora Volkow is a world leader in the neurobiology of diseases of reward and self-control such as addiction and obesity. Nora was born in Mexico City, where she lived until she completed medical school. While training as a psychiatrist in New York City, she started doing research with brain imaging technologies to study how drugs affect the human brain. Nora’s research has been instrumental in demonstrating that addiction is a brain disease that undermines the function of circuits that underlie reward, motivation and self-control—and in identifying overlapping circuitry disruptions in obesity.
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