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How to Heal Your Thyroid By Healing Your Liver

Adrenal Fatigue: The 21st Century Stress Syndrome…

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Serotonin, depression, and aggression: The problem of brain energy

The thyroid gland synthesizes and releases thyroid hormones which have diverse physiologic effects including cardiac, pulmonary, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, skeletal, neuromuscular and endocrine effects (growth, reproduction, energy metabolism). The synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (see figure 1) involves the following steps: The thyroid follicular cell takes up iodine via a Na-Iodine symporter and traps it intracellularly as follows: Iodine is oxidized and incorporated into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin to form monoidotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT). Thyroglobulin, a large glycoprotein with multiple tyrosyl molecules, is the storage form of thyroid hormone and is found in the follicular lumen of the thyroid cell. Coupling of iodotyrosine molecules within thyroglobulin forms the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (tetraiodothyronine). Proteolysis of the thyroglobulin molecule releases MIT, DIT, T3 and T4. MIT and DIT are deiodinated and the liberated iodine is reused. . Thyroid hormone synthesis is mediated by an enzyme called thyroperoxidase (TPO) which mediates both the oxidation of iodine and their incorporation into tyrosyl residues. As we will see later, this enzyme is the target in Hashimoto's (autoimmune thyroiditis).

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It’s also important to understand that synthetic thyroid hormone consists of T4. Even though it is synthetic, the body can still convert it to triiodothyronine (T3). However, some people have problems with the conversion process and are given synthetic T3 (i.e. Cytomel). Natural thyroid hormone consists of both T4 and T3, as well as T1 and T2, which I won’t be discussing in this blog post.

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Thyroid Hormones, Calcitonin and Hormones of the Parathyroid Gland

Thyroglobulin antibodies. Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a glycoprotein homodimer produced predominantly by the thyroid gland . It acts as a substrate for the synthesis of thyroxine and triiodothyronine as well as the storage of the inactive forms of thyroid hormone and iodine . In other words, thyroglobulin is a protein produced by the thyroid gland, and it is important for the synthesis of T3 and T4. Thyroglobulin antibodies attack and damage this protein, which leads to the decreased production of thyroid hormone. Elevated thyroglobulin antibodies are common in people with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, although some people with Graves’ Disease can have these antibodies as well.

Hormones of the parathyroid gland _ ..

Synthesis of triiodothyronine a thyroxine.

Thyroid Gland: Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine
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  • 09/11/2017 · Thyroid gland: Thyroid gland ..

    A R T I C L E

  • What does the Thyroid Gland do? - Endocrine Surgeon

    and protein synthesis ..

  • Diagram of thyroxine synthesis - click to enlarge

    What does the Thyroid Gland do

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