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Eukaryotic DNA Replication Comparison

Fig. 7: mRNA Processing in Eukaryotic Cells (Excision of Interons and Joining of Exons)

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T1 - Nucleic acid synthesis in permeabilized eukaryotic cells

Moreover, these origin sites are generally longer than eukaryotic origin sites.

Eukaryotic DNA is comparatively very large, and is organized into linear chromosomes.

Buzzle provides a brief difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication processes.

Chromosomal origins of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells not only are crucial for understanding the basic process of DNA duplication but also provide a tool to analyze how cell cycle regulators are linked to the replication machinery. During the past decade much progress has been made in identifying replication origins in eukaryotic genomes. More recently, replication initiation point (RIP) mapping has allowed us to detect start sites for DNA synthesis at the nucleotide level and thus to monitor replication initiation events at the origin very precisely. Beyond giving us the precise positions of start sites, the application of RIP mapping in yeast and human cells has revealed a single, defined start point at which replication initiates, a scenario very reminiscent of transcription initiation. More importantly, studies in yeast have shown that the binding site for the initiator, the origin recognition complex (ORC), lies immediately adjacent to the replication start point, which suggests that ORC directs the initiation machinery to a distinct site. Therefore, in our pursuit of identifying ORC-binding sites in higher eukaryotes, RIP mapping may lead the way.

Hence, the nucleus is the site for DNA replication in eukaryotes.

The most distinctive feature of a eukaryotic cell structure is the presence of a nucleus.

Prokaryotic cells undergo binary fission to replicate into two separate cells whereas more complex stages are involved in the cell division cycle of eukaryotic cells.

Generally, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the process of DNA replication proceeds in two opposite directions, from the origin of replication.

However, in certain plasmids present in bacterial cells, unidirectional DNA replication has been observed.

This membrane is found in only eukaryotic cells—because o...

Each eukaryotic cell is divided into several membranous compartments or regions and each such region functions like a different work unit, performing specific metabolic activities and functions.

As mentioned above, introns make up the majority of DNA in higher eukaryotic cells and for decades was considered to be "junk DNA" accumulated over millions of years of evolution. Over recent years however, it has been discovered that much of this intergenic DNA, although it does not code for protein synthesis, is transcribed into functional molecules of RNA with names such as antisense RNA microRNA, and riboswitch RNA that play important roles in whether or not a protein is actually made.

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    This nucleus holds the cell's genetic information and the eukaryotic genome is structured in the form of chromosomes.

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    This organism has somewhat blurred certain areas on the line that separates prokaryotes from eukaryotes.

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    BioCoach Activity Concept 4: The Endomembrane System in Eukaryotic Cells

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Extrachromosomal circular DNA is found in Eukaryotic Cells

AB - The technique described for rendering eukaryotic cells permeable to nucleotides has several advantages in the study of nucleic acid synthesis under near physiological conditions. The technique itself is simple; the cells remain in a monodisperse suspension and are easy to pipet quantitatively. The cells are freely permeable to phosphorylated compounds which gain rapid access to the nucleus. Nucleotides are incorporated into DNA without intermediate breakdown and rephosphorylation. DNA synthesis in permeable cells is semiconservative, the products are high-molecular-weight DNA intermediates, and DNA synthesis occurs as extensions of replication sites that were active in vivo. It is probable that all DNA synthesis in permeable cells is by elongation and that new replicon synthesis is not initiated. This offers the advantage of studying elongation in the absence of initiation. There is essentially no degradation of cell DNA during the permeabilization process. The activity of the replicative DNA polymerase and poly (ADPR) polymerase have been found to undergo marked variations with the status of cell growth. This technique provides an assay system in which the polymerases function on their endogenous templates. It should be useful in determining whether agents that affect nucleic acid synthesis in intact cells exert their effects by direct action on the polymerase or on the template. The system should also be useful for studies of the intermediates in nucleic acid synthesis, and finally for studies of physiological changes in the activities of polymerases that occur with metabolic manipulation of the cells. Since the addition of Triton X-100 renders the cells permeable to exogenous proteins, this technique may also be useful in complementation studies of eukaryotic cells with genetic defects in DNA synthesis.

DNA Replication in Eukaryotic Cells (1996, Volume 31)

AB - Chromosomal origins of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells not only are crucial for understanding the basic process of DNA duplication but also provide a tool to analyze how cell cycle regulators are linked to the replication machinery. During the past decade much progress has been made in identifying replication origins in eukaryotic genomes. More recently, replication initiation point (RIP) mapping has allowed us to detect start sites for DNA synthesis at the nucleotide level and thus to monitor replication initiation events at the origin very precisely. Beyond giving us the precise positions of start sites, the application of RIP mapping in yeast and human cells has revealed a single, defined start point at which replication initiates, a scenario very reminiscent of transcription initiation. More importantly, studies in yeast have shown that the binding site for the initiator, the origin recognition complex (ORC), lies immediately adjacent to the replication start point, which suggests that ORC directs the initiation machinery to a distinct site. Therefore, in our pursuit of identifying ORC-binding sites in higher eukaryotes, RIP mapping may lead the way.

In eukaryotic cells, where does DNA synthesis happen?

The initiator proteins, single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB), primase, DNA helicase, and DNA ligase are present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Enzymes specific to prokaryotes:


Enzymes specific to eukaryotes:


In addition, eukaryotes contain DNA polymerase γ, which is involved in mitochondrial DNA replication.

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