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Does descriptive study need hypothesis : 100% Original

If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example.

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for a descriptive study does it have dependent variables ..

To see an extraordinary example of an ecologic study, play the video below created by Hans Rosling. This is a magnificent example that examines the correlation between income and life expectancy in the countries of the world over time. It is also a terrific example of a creative, engaging, and powerful way to display a vast quantity of data.

In descriptive study the project is often arranged as distinct phases, like in the diagram above.

This was an extraordinarily important case series (a detailed description of characteristics of a series of people who all have the same disease) that suggested that this new syndrome was associated with sexual activity in male homosexuals. Alerting the medical establishment and proposing a hypothesis was an important milestone in the AIDS epidemic, however, the association could not be securely established based on this small case series. It was not known how many other individuals might be suffering from this new syndrome. It was also not known what the prevalence of homosexuality might be in others with this syndrome or how this might compare to the overall prevalence of homosexuality in the population that gave rise to the cases. As a result, this case series could not securely establish a valid association. Nevertheless, it laid the ground work for subsequent case-control studies and cohort studies (analytic studies) that did establish the risk factors for this disease.


The key to identifying a case series is that all of the subjects included in the study have the primary disease or outcome of interest. For example, an article reported on 239 people who got bird flu. The article might present tables and graphs that gave information about their age, occupation, where they lived, whether they lived or died, etc., but basically it is a detailed description of the characteristics and outcomes in a group of people who all had the same disease.

A case series is a report on the characteristics of a group of subjects who all have a particular disease or condition. Common features among the group may suggest hypotheses about disease causation. Note that the "series" may be small (as in the example below) or it may be large (hundreds or thousands of "cases"). However, the chief limitation is that there is no comparison group. Consequently, common features may suggest hypotheses, but these need to be tested with some sort of analytical study before an association can be accepted as valid.

Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition ..

The report by Willoughby et al. is an example of a case report – a detailed description of a single subject. The report is important because it demonstrates that it is possible for victims of rabies to survive, even without post-exposure prophylaxis. However, we have no idea how effective this treatment might be.

The same criterion is applied to other phases of descriptive project as well, as is explained in , and In normative research a hypothesis is seldom used as such, but it is interesting to note that a normative project often includes a decisive focal point which determines the project's success or failure in much the same way than the test of a hypothesis does in a descriptive project.

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    A survey of eleven student-assistant and eleven work-study students shows the followingdescriptive statistics.

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Does descriptive research have dependent varibles?

Do not discuss here the actual or used in your study (this will be done in the ); your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and approaches used in your field.

Does descriptive research have dependent varibles

For example, in the initial stage of everybody perhaps agrees that the present mode of working is unbearable but all known remedies seem inapplicable, and the participants therefore start making from empty table a descriptive model of the work to be used as a basis of development.

Do descriptive statistics have p-values

This type of research aspires to get knowledge about the object of study, and the criterion which is used in accepting or rejecting a descriptive hypothesis is factuality or truthfulness.

Almost all descriptive statistics are used in hypothesis testing too

Such is the situation when you know that the present state of the object of study is unsatisfactory but you do not know exactly what is wrong in it, neither do you know of any superior usable substitutes for it.

This approach is called a case-study.

The purpose of descriptive exploratory research is to extract a structure from the source material which in the best case can be formed as a rule that governs all the observations and is not known earlier (per the definition of exploratory study).

Research Questions and Hypotheses | Lærd Dissertation

It’s good science to let people know if your study results are solid, or if they could have happened by chance. The usual way of doing this is to test your results with a . A p value is a number that you get by running a hypothesis test on your data. A P value of 0.05 (5%) or less is usually enough to claim that your results are repeatable. However, there’s another way to test the validity of your results: Bayesian Hypothesis testing. This type of testing gives you another way to test the strength of your results.

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