The dream argument, by this very empiricalfact, would lack support.
Wouldnot Descartes’ dream argument be outright refuted?
then what explains why the dream hypothesis the more forceful?
But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)
Again, the purpose of this chapter's presentation is to cover, in some depth, the scientific process and the kinds of controversies and numerous competing hypotheses that can appear and to show how intersecting lines of evidence, brought from diverse disciplines and using increasingly sophisticated tools, are providing new and important insights, not only into the distant past, but which can also have modern-day relevance.
9/29/2009 · Descartes' Dreaming and Demon arguments.
are created by undisturbed organism remains that become saturated with various chemicals, which gradually replace the organic material with rock by . Few life forms ever become fossils but are instead consumed by other life. Rare dynamics lead to fossil formation, usually by anoxic conditions leading to undisturbed sediments that protect the evidence and fossilize it. Scientists estimate that only about 1%-2% of all species that ever existed have left behind fossils that have been recovered. Geological processes are continually creating new land, both on the continents and under the ocean. Seafloor strata do not provide much insight into life’s ancient past, particularly fossils, because the process in “mere” . The basic process is that, in the Atlantic and Pacific sea floors in particular, oceanic volcanic ridges spew out basalt and the plates flow toward the surrounding continents. When oceanic plates reach continental plates, the heavier (basaltic) oceanic plates are subducted below the lighter (granitic) continental plates. Parts of an oceanic plate were more than 100 mya and left behind plate fragments. On the continents, however, as they have floated on the heavier rocks, tectonic and erosional processes have not obliterated all ancient rocks and fossils. The oldest “indigenous” rocks yet found on Earth are . have been dated to 3.5 bya, and fossils of individual cyanobacteria have been dated to 1.5 bya. There are recent claims of finding . The oldest eukaryote fossils found so far are of . The first amoeba-like vase-shaped fossils date from about 750 mya, and there are recent claims of finding the first animal fossils in Namibia, of sponge-like creatures which are . Fossils from might be the first animal fossils, and some scientists think that animals may have first appeared about one bya. The first animals, or , probably descended from . The is a tail-like appendage that protists primarily used to move and it could also be used to create a current to capture food. Flagella were used to draw food into the first animals, which would have been sponge-like. When the first colonies developed in which unicellular organisms began to specialize and act in concert, animals were born, and it is currently thought that the evolution of animals probably only happened . In interpreting the fossil record, there are four general levels of confidence: inevitable conclusions (such as ichthyosaurs were marine reptiles), likely interpretations (ichthyosaurs appeared to give live birth instead of laying eggs), speculations (were ichthyosaurs warm-blooded?), and guesses (what color was an ichthyosaur?).
Readers for the collective task that I have in mind need to become familiar with the scientific process, partly so they can develop a critical eye for the kinds of arguments and evidence that attend the pursuit of FE and other fringe science/technology efforts. For the remainder of this essay, I will attempt to refrain from referring to too many scientific papers and getting into too many details of the controversies. Following my references will help readers who want to go deeply into the issues, and many of them are as deep and controversial as the Snowball Earth hypothesis and aftermath has proven to be, or attempts to explain the . These are relatively new areas of scientific investigation, partly due to an improved scientific toolset and ingenious ways to use them. It is very possible that the controversies in those areas will diminish within the next generation as new hypotheses account for increasingly sophisticated data, and in the near future are nearly certain. But science is always subject to becoming dogmatic and hypotheses can prevail for reasons of wealth, power, rhetorical skill, and the like, not because they are valid. The history of science is plagued with that phenomenon, and probably will be as long as humanity lives in the era of scarcity.
The dreaming hypothesis allows Descartes to doubt the ..
Humans are the large-brained, allegedly sentient species that dominates Earth, and humans have greatly altered evolutionary processes, down to “engineering” the DNA of organisms. We have a “nature” and multi-billion year heritage, as any organism does. How much have we changed ours, and how much do our natures really matter? Can we consciously change our natures or overcome them? The nature/nurture debate is quite old, and as the domestication of plants and animals has demonstrated, or the , nurture can nature by selective breeding at the least. The , as an experiment, and the changes were dramatic. There is plenty about humanity that is nature at work, such as a child's acquisition of language or the urge to procreate (and the related ). Also, a great deal is socially learned. At least half of the variance in human traits such as intelligence and personality has been attributed to genetics, and nearly all the rest is socialization by the peer group (I believe that the , and the guiding role, but that is not scientifically demonstrable, at least today). But few of those scientific findings regarding human nature, if any of them, are relevant to why imperial "entertainment" is no longer . The improvement in standard of living due to increased energy consumption has precipitated many changes in what was once considered human "nature," such as . In a , would the dominant ideologies exalt and ?
Many different technologies have been developed that attempted to harness the zero-point field, and devices made from rotating magnets seem to be the most common prototypes (the effect begins to appear at about 2,000 RPMs in devices), but a solid-state device similar to would be the likely “winner” in any FE device contest. included concepts such as manipulating the space-time continuum, inter-dimensional energy transfer, and other fantastic ideas that nobody has an easy time comprehending. Sparky's paper could be seen as merely pretty and fanciful theorizing, but his device worked. I will never forget the awe in my close associate's voice as he described ice forming on Sparky's device as it began churning out electricity, and the wiring configuration defied conventional notions of electricity. Ice forming on it, as it begins outputting great amounts of energy (Sparky's device produced one million times more energy than went into it), is not confined to Sparky's device; in the FE field, that effect is one of the most impressive pieces of evidence that a device is accessing the zero-point field. A radically different physics than is taught to mainstream scientists in the early 21st century explains why Sparky's device worked. Sparky's device also produced antigravity effects, and the for which the research went black in the 1950s needed vast amounts of energy to operate. Those technologies far past what Sparky created in his home. FE and antigravity are interrelated in more ways than one, and the vision presented in this chapter will assume that those technologies are universally used by humanity.
Critique of Descartes’ Dream Argument ..
Reddit comments linking to Dream argument - Wikipedia
A skeptical hypothesis is a hypothetical situation which can be used in an argument for skepticism about a ..
Human Knowledge: Foundations and Limits
A skeptical hypothesis is a hypothetical situation which can be used in an argument for skepticism about ..
Contemporary Skepticism | Internet Encyclopedia of …
Sep 29, 2009 · Descartes' Dreaming and Demon arguments.
Introduction to the current discussion of skepticism.
Chapter 1: The Dream Hypothesis and the Argument from Internality 27
1.1 Our Purpose in Raising the Dream Hypothesis 27
1.2 That the Dream/Reality Contrast Is Extrinsic to the Subject Matter of the Dream Hypothesis 28
1.3 The Argument from Internality 31
1.4 Dream and the Law of Excluded Middle 34
1.5 The Dream Hypothesis and Space 40
1.6 The Dream Hypothesis and Time 43
1.7 The Dream Hypothesis and the World 48
Epistemology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Chapter 2: The Dream Hypothesis: Identity and the First Person 53
2.1 A Puzzle about Identity 53
2.2 Representation and Identity 54
2.3 A Way out of the Puzzle 57
2.4 The Dream Hypothesis and the First-Person Singular 61
2.5 The Subject versus the Dreamer of a Dream; The Positional Conception of the Self 64
2.6 Emerging from a Dream and the First Person 68
Descartes: Overcoming Doubt - Philosophy Pages
Chapter 3: The Confusion of Standpoint 71
3.1 Dreams and the Infinity of Time 71
3.2 Time and the Confusion of Standpoint 74
3.3 Descartes and the Dream Hypothesis 76
3.4 Dream Skepticism versus Memory Skepticism 78
3.5 Real-Life Uncertainty about the Dream Hypothesis 80
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