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5-the uterine decidua synthesises: ..

Regulation of human endometrial and decidual function- role of epidermal growth factor in the decidualisation.

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during pregnancy, is called the decidua

The corpus luteum is dominant throughout the period of transport of the egg up till implantation when the embryo now outputs human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to convert this temporary corpus luteum to that of pregnancy (57).

Influence of calcitrol on prolactin and prostaglandin production by human decidua.

During pregnancy, distinctive changes occur in uterine tissues including endometrial stromal cells, leukocytes, and blood vessels (BV). In primates and rodents with hemochorial placentae, decidualization of the uterus is hormonally regulated . Decidualization is triggered late in each menstrual cycle in women and by implantation in mice . During decidualization, activation of small agranular lymphocytes, believed to be precursors of uNK cells, is thought to occur and lead to the appearance of granulated uNK cells that rapidly proliferate within the uterus. In mice, mature uNK cells become localized to the mesometrial side of each implantation site. Some are found within arterial vessels and tissue of the decidua basalis, but more form a lymphocyte-rich structure known as either the mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy (MLAp) or the metrial gland . uNK cells reach peak numbers and IFN-γ production at about the middle of the 19-d mouse gestation . Beginning at gd 12, uNK cells undergo progressive nuclear fragmentation and decline in number . In mice, the major decidual arteries undergo gestationally induced modification beginning about gd 9 . This process involves thinning of the muscular coat, increasing lumen diameter, and vessel elongation .

during pregnancy can significantly alter uterine ..

What is not well known is that this function is under the control o basal hormonal steroids from the ovary coming through the UTVO circulation.

Recently, it has been shown, in human, that aberrant endocannabinoid signalling in Fallopian tube leads to ectopic pregnancy; in fact, cb1 mRNA has been detected at low levels in Fallopian tube and endometrium of women with ectopic pregnancy, if compared to intra-uterine pregnancies. Moreover, a possible association between polymorphism genotypes of cb1 gene and ectopic pregnancy has been investigated [].

They may be important in implantation in the endometrium and deciduas or may influence the event of early pregnancy in the oviduct, through the agency of oviductal fluid.

The pregnant endometrium is termed the decidua

Accumulation of CRTH2 positive Th2 and Tc2 cells at implantation sites of human decidua in ..

AEA, at low concentration, confers blastocyst competency to implantation via CB1, differentially modulating ERK signalling and Ca2+ channel activity. In particular, AEA at a low concentration (7 nM) induces ERK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in trophectoderm cells, thus allowing blastocyst implantation in the receptive uterus. Conversely, AEA at a higher concentration (28 nM) inhibits Ca2+channels, thus compromising Ca2+ mobilisation needed for implantation []. These results suggest that low AEA and CB1 levels are beneficial to implantation and that low FAAH activity and subsequent increased AEA levels may be one of the causes of implantation failure or pregnancy loss.

Already, several methods to influence the local circulation of the FRT are in use such as hormone pessaries, suppositories, vagina rings, and hormonal intra-uterine contraceptive devices (12).Such, when applied in the future can provide means of increasing hormone concentrations at local levels to influence the endocrinology of early pregnancy for either fertility enhancement or contragestion.

Uterine Tubulin Production During Early Pregnancy in …
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  • women with ectopic pregnancy, if compared to intra-uterine ..

    of women with ectopic pregnancy, if compared to intra-uterine ..

  • 13/01/2018 · What is decidua pregnancy

    essay do you use a thesis statement in a research paper during pregnancy uterine decidua synthesises education …

  • embeditself into the uterine wall to give you pregnancy.

    decidua of pregnancy.

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Decidua | Implantation (Human Embryo) | Women's Health

Abbreviations used in this paper: BM, bone marrow; BV, blood vessels; gd, gestation day; MLAp, mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy; PAS, periodic acid-Schiff; RAG, recombinase activating gene; Stat, signal transducer and activator of transcription; u, uterine.

These changes ― decidua reaction ..

He also found the antigen to be available in the epithelial lining of the oviduct of the adult mouse at the day of ovulation and also the endometrial lining of pregnant uterus.

Human uterine leukocytes and pregnancy

Abbreviations used in this paper: BM, bone marrow; BV, blood vessels; gd, gestation day; MLAp, mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy; PAS, periodic acid-Schiff; RAG, recombinase activating gene; Stat, signal transducer and activator of transcription; u, uterine.

proteins and collagen synthesis in first-trimester human decidua ..

The mechanisms initiating mammalian pregnancy-induced uterine artery remodeling are not known. Adult BV, other than those of the uterus and ovary, are stable . Angiopoietin-1 is involved in BV stabilization when ligated to its receptor, Tie-2 . Ablation of murine Tie-2 disrupts vessel structure . In this study, relatively high concentrations of IFN-γ were required for initiation of uBV remodeling during pregnancy. uNK cells are highly migratory cells, and at gd 10, in mesometrial decidua of normal B6 pregnancy, 5% of uNK cells are in the arteries/arterioles and 25% are associated with the muscular walls of these vessels (our unpublished data and ). It is likely that short range, high concentration uNK cell–derived IFN-γ signaling initiates destabilization of the decidual arteries, permitting vessel wall thinning and lumen increase by two complementary mechanisms. The first is indirect IFN-γ–regulated changes to gene expression in target tissues (smooth muscle, endothelial cells, and matrix) . The second is direct actions on BV. Human uNK cells express angiopoietin-2 , a natural competitive antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor of endothelium , and they express NK5 , an angiogenic factor. Thus, in addition to initiating uterine arterial instability, uNK cells may play later roles in branching angiogenesis within implantation sites. Actions of host NK cells on allografted vessels are reported as destructive . Future studies will be needed to clarify whether unusual aspects of fetal antigen presentation, uterine endothelial cell activation, decidual matrix composition, or the subsets of NK cells involved account for our novel finding that IFN-γ from uNK cells is central in initiation of uterine arterial remodeling.

Uterine decidua synthesises. Disability

Implantation sites were fixed in Bouin's fixative (Fisher Scientific) and processed into paraffin using standard methodology. Two or three implantation sites from each pregnant mouse (four to five pregnant females per study group except in the mrIFN-γ treatment study) were serially sectioned (7 μm) and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) before microscopic examination. The number of uNK cells per square millimeter was measured on 11 sections from the center of each implantation site and averaged as previously described . Cross-sectional areas of the MLAp and ratios for vessel/lumen diameters of the main decidual arteries, cut in cross-section, were measured on the same slides that were used for uNK cell numeration using OPTIMAS™ image analysis software (version 6.2; Optimas Corp.). The means of experimental groups were compared using two-factor ANOVA (analysis of variance). The variances between mice and implantation sites were considered as analytic factors (P P

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