effect of iron deficiency and low hemoglobin ..
The majority of iron extracted from circulation daily is used for hemoglobin synthesis
iron deficiency leads to decreased hemoglobin synthesis, ..
A woman loses about 500 mg of iron with each pregnancy. Menstrual losses are highly variable, ranging from 10 to 250 mL (4-100 mg of iron) per period. These iron losses in women double their need to absorb iron in comparison to males. A special effort should be made to identify and treat iron deficiency during pregnancy and early childhood because of the effects of severe iron deficiency upon learning capability, growth, and development.
Occasionally, patients with severe iron deficiency anemia from slow but persistent gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding have repeatedly negative testing of stool for hemoglobin. Therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of characteristics of the anemia at all intervals after the onset of bleeding.
Hemoglobin Synthesis - Harvard University
Zinc protoprophyrin in the red cells of people who receive intermittent injections of erythropoietin indicates suboptimal hemoglobin production because either the patient is iron deficient or lacks the ability to mobilize iron from stores sufficently quickly to meet the need created by the exogenously administered hormone (Fishbane and Lynn, 1995).The implications of this model for the clinical use of erythropoietin are great.
Either diminished absorbable dietary iron or excessive loss of body iron can cause iron deficiency. Diminished absorption usually is due to an insufficient intake of dietary iron in an absorbable form. Hemorrhage is the most common cause of excessive loss of body iron, but it can occur with hemoglobinuria from intravascular hemolysis. Malabsorption of iron is relatively uncommon in the absence of small bowel disease (sprue, celiac disease, regional enteritis) or previous GI surgery.
Hemoglobin and Functions of Iron
In contrast to findings in iron deficiency, enhanced erythropoiesis, or hypoxia, endotoxin rapidly diminishes iron absorption without altering enterocyte iron concentration. This suggests that endotoxin and, perhaps, cytokines alter iron absorption by a different mechanism. This is the effect of hepcidin and the balance of hepcidin versus erythropoietin.
Bleeding for any reason produces iron depletion. If sufficient blood loss occurs, iron deficiency anemia ensues (see the image below). A single sudden loss of blood produces a posthemorrhagic anemia that is normocytic. The bone marrow is stimulated to increase production of hemoglobin, thereby depleting iron in body stores. Once they are depleted, hemoglobin synthesis is impaired and microcytic hypochromic erythrocytes are produced.
red blood cells of your blood called hemoglobin and in muscle ..
as the Bohr effect The Bohr effect favors the ..
that iron deficiency enhanced the induction effect of VHL R200W for 50 genes including hemoglobin synthesis loci ..
Hemoglobin deficiency can be caused ..
Iron deficiency - Wikipedia
The Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia ( IDA) ..
Quntitative disorders of hemoglobin synthesis.
Iron deficiency anemia can occur from loss of body iron in the urine. If a freshly obtained urine specimen appears bloody but contains no red blood cells, suspect hemoglobinuria. Obtain confirmation in the laboratory that the pigment is hemoglobin and not myoglobin. This can be accomplished easily because 60% ammonium sulfate precipitates hemoglobin but not myoglobin.
International Scholarly Research Notices is a ..
Hemoglobinuria classically is ascribed to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, but it can occur with any brisk intravascular hemolytic anemia. In the early days of heart surgery with implantation of artificial valves, this mechanism of producing iron deficiency anemia was commonplace in large university hospitals. Today, with better prostheses, it has become a less frequent clinical problem. With less severe hemolytic disorders, there may be no significant hemoglobinuria.
The Interaction of Iron and Erythropoietin
An adult male absorbs and loses about 1 mg of iron from a diet containing 10-20 mg daily. During childbearing years, an adult female loses an average of 2 mg of iron daily and must absorb a similar quantity of iron in order to maintain equilibrium. Because the average woman eats less than the average man does, she must be more than twice as efficient in absorbing dietary iron in order to maintain equilibrium and avoid developing iron deficiency anemia.
inadequate for the synthesis of hemoglobin
Race probably has no significant effect upon the occurrence of iron deficiency anemia; however, because diet and socioeconomic factors play a role in the prevalence of iron deficiency, it more frequently is observed in people of various racial backgrounds living in poorer areas of the world.
Function and Synthesis of Hemoglobin - Interactive …
Iron plays a critical role in hemoglobin synthesis on the red blood cell and insufficient iron stores serve as the starting point for the development of IDA.
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