Thermodynamic energy conversion efficiencies: …
The energy conversion efficiency for this type of photosynthesis is more fully described in Chapter 5.
For efficient energy, do you want solar panels or biofuels?
The long-term goal of the research work is to develop a technology compatible with carbon dioxide capture systems installed at facilities such as thermal power stations and factories, utilizing carbon dioxide to provide stockable and trailerable energy. Towards this, Toshiba will further improve the conversion efficiency by increasing catalytic activity, with the aim of securing practical implementation in the 2020s.
Actual conversion efficiency is generally lower than the calculated potential efficiency. It’s around 3.2% , and 2.4% and 3.7% for the most productive across a full growing season. Efficiency reductions are due to insufficient capacity to use all the radiation that falls on a leaf. Plants’ photoprotective mechanisms, evolved to stop leaves oxidising, also reduce efficiency.
Energy conversion efficiency of photosynthesis
The total power from sunlight reaching the earth’s surface is (~2,500,000 EJ). However, solar energy is geographically diffuse - some places are sunnier than others. This makes it important to efficiently convert sunlight, capturing its energy in useful forms.
In the fluorescent lamp, electrical energy is converted into atomic excitation energy in the vapour of mercury atoms inside a tube. In this case, the energy conversion efficiency is about twice that of a tungsten bulb at around 20%. However, the spectrum of light emitted by these lamps (when the electrons return to their non-excited state) is not continuous; instead, light is emitted at specific wavelengths and colours corresponding to the electrical energy levels of the mercury atoms. Household fluorescent tubes, therefore, have a coating of white phosphor inside to convert this light emission into a more continuous spectrum. Replacing the mercury vapour with other gases, such as neon (which gives an orange light) or other inert gases, allows the production of many different coloured fluorescent lamps, used for luminous displays and signs (see image). Different phosphor coatings also change the colour of the light from the lamp.
Approximate efficiency of the conversion of light …
A standard pin, 1-1/2" wide bulb. The main caution to the use of these bulbs for aquariums, is the use of shop lights as an inexpensive alternative to many aquarium lights. A 4100 K cool white shop light is not going to come close to a 6400 K daylight lamp that is of peak PAR efficiency (even if you match lumens).
This bulb will generally use more watts and have a lower lumens per watt ratio (usually around 40) and is common in shop lights and even some aquarium bulbs. These are generally the least expensive lamps to purchase and even though they may be "old school", some still try to make up for the low technology with the fact you can purchase several for a low price to make up for poor efficiency.
This is another concept to consider that we do not know all the "mechanisms" that drive it.
Basically photoinhibition is the damage to the light harvesting reactions of the photosynthetic capacity of a vascular plant, algae, or cyanobacterium by excess light energy trapped by the chloroplast.
This process can occur in in all organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis. In both plants & cyanobacteria, blue light causes photoinhibition more efficiently than other wavelengths of visible light, although it has been demonstrated the red light can cause photoinhibition as well.
Efficiency of energy conversion
Mr G’s Environmental Systems » 1.1. 3: Energy in Systems
Chapter 2 - Energy conversion by photosynthetic …
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Grow light - Wikipedia
Solar-to-Fuel System Recycles CO2 to Make Ethanol …
Quantum biology - Wikipedia
Plant Energy Transformations-Photosynthesis - …
No single solution can address all these different types of waste. Instead, we need to engineer creative approaches to fit each situation, as the University of New Hampshire learned after installing a gas-fired cogeneration plant in 2006. "The plant completely changed the way we think about managing energy on campus," says Paul Chamberlin, the university's assistant VP in charge of energy and campus development. The obvious gain was capturing excess heat that the turbine gave off while producing electricity and using it to heat campus buildings, boosting the generator's overall efficiency from 35 percent to a maximum of about 85 percent. Better yet, the university realized that landfill gas from a nearby dump, which otherwise would have simply flared into the atmosphere, could provide valuable extra fuel. Less obvious, though, was what to do with all that extra heat in the summer—"free steam," as Chamberlin puts it. The solution: The new UNH business school currently under construction will have steam absorption chillers instead of electric air conditioners, and other campus buildings will follow suit.
Solar Energy News -- ScienceDaily
Toshiba has developed an artificial photosynthesis technology that converts energy into carbon compounds from carbon dioxide at an efficiency of 1.5%, the highest level yet recorded(Note 3). Sunlight converts the carbon dioxide and water into carbon monoxide, a source for production of methanol, which can be used as a substitute for gasoline and as a feedstock in the manufacture of diverse products, including adhesives, medicines and PET bottles.
PUT A GREEN LIGHT - Hidden Meanings
Other artificial photosynthesis technologies use materials that absorb UV light from sunlight to reach the high reaction energy required to convert carbon dioxide into a fuel. However, their low level of light utilization efficiency drags down the energy conversion efficiency, and practical application requires increased efficiency.
10 Smart Ways We Could Stop Wasting Energy
Solar radiation may be the ultimate source of renewable energy, and biofuels will continue to be a major avenue for its use. Solar-energy conversion efficiency by even the most productive plant communities is less than 5%, while photovoltaic cells in solar panels may approach 20%.
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