Empathic joy and the empathy-altruism hypothesis.
Batson et al.�s (1997) empathy-altruism hypothesis proposes that empathic concern evokes an altruistic motivation.
The evolution of reciprocal altruism.
There are classic theoretical arguments for the adaptiveness of helping, notably inclusive fitness, reciprocal altruism and the benefits of group esteem (Hamilton 1964; Trivers 1971).
Altruist advocates admit that evolutionary theorists have been useful in revealing how self-sacrificial behavior can be consistent with the theory of natural selection, however they are more concerned with the driving mental motivation of the helper (Batson, 1991).
(1969) Empathy, outcome, and altruism.
We argue that it is more useful to consider empathy as a broad phenomenon that encompasses identification, emotional contagion, and cognitive empathy (Figure 1).
This argument has drawbacks. Natural selection does not alwaysprovide back-up mechanisms (I have but one liver). Natural selectionsometimes has my desires caused by affect that is produced by a beliefrather than directly by the belief (my desire to run away from dangeris often caused by my fear, rather than by the mere belief that thereis danger). And in these cases, as in the case of the imperfectlycorrelated pain and bodily injury, there seems usually tobe affect. The altruistic hypothesis also has some ofthe same problems: for example, just as there might not be enoughpain, the non-instrumental desire that the child do well might not bestrong enough to defeat other desires. Indeed, without an estimate ofhow strong this desire is, there is no reason to think the egoistichypothesis is less reliable. It may have more points at which it cango wrong, but produce more care than a direct but weak altruisticmechanism. (For many of these worries, and others, see Stich, Dorisand Roedder 2010.)
(1963) Altruism or arousal in the rat?
Psychological egoism claims that each person has but one ultimateaim: her own welfare. This allows for action that fails to maximizeperceived self-interest, but rules out the sort of behaviorpsychological egoists like to target — such as altruistic behavior ormotivation by thoughts of duty alone. It allows for weakness of will,since in weakness of will cases I am still aiming at my own welfare; Iam weak in that I do not act as I aim. And it allows for aiming atthings other than one's welfare, such as helping others, where thesethings are a means to one's welfare.
Psychological egoism is supported by our frequent observation ofself-interested behavior. Apparently altruistic action is oftenrevealed to be self-interested. And we typically motivate people byappealing to their self-interest (through, for example, punishments andrewards).
(1962) "Altruism" in the albino rat.
(1971) The evolution of reciprocal altruism.
This would account for the altruism advocates� example of a mother rushing to help her injured child (Kenrick, 1991).
(1984) The origins of empathy and altruism.
This allows for the possibility of psychologically altruistic mechanisms operating in a genetically egoistic manner.
D., 1991, The Altruism Question, Hillsdale, N
(1970) Altruism - an examination of the concept and a review of the literature.
The Altruism Question (Batson, 1991).
One worry is that what best increases reproductive fitness is actingas a kin altruist rather than as a rational egoist (Crisp 2012, OtherInternet Resources). Presumably, then, it is believing that I oughtto act as a kin altruist, rather than as a rational egoist, that bestincreases my reproductive fitness. (If there is a tie between whatincreases reproductive fitness and belief, and believing that rationalegoism is true is best for reproductive fitness, one would expect manyto believe that rational egoism is true. But very few do, while manyendorse Broad's “self-referential altruism” (Broad1971b).) De Lazari-Radek and Singer reply that the recommendations ofrational egoism are very close to those of kin altruism, and muchcloser to those of kin altruism than are the recommendations ofutilitarianism (2014 194). But rational egoism and kin altruism domake opposed recommendations. For example, kin altruism mightrecommend that I sacrifice myself for my family, whether I care aboutthem or not, whereas rational egoism would recommend sacrifice only ifmy welfare were to be higher were I to sacrifice and die rather thannot sacrifice and live. It is also hard to think of a plausibleargument which has kin altruism as a premiss and rational egoism asthe conclusion, so doubts about kin altruism do not seem to undercutarguments for rational egoism. Nor is it clear how noting adifference in the closeness of recommendations justifies concludingthat rational egoism is debunked and utilitarianism not debunked.
Batsons empathy-altruism hypothesis. - A-Level …
But with our model, inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism did not drive the selection for empathy, instead, they facilitate external acts of helping after empathy is evoked or in the absence of empathy.
Batsons empathy-altruism hypothesis
It is important to note that inclusive fitness, reciprocal altruism, group esteem and emotional linkage are all complementary factors that would additively increase the likelihood of helping behaviors.
The Empathy-Altruism Debate: An Empirical Approach
We suggest, that the evolution of empathy per se is more related to the evolution of emotional linkage between individuals than to the evolution of altruism.
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."