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Statins Inhibit Coenzyme Q10 Synthesis. - Cholesterol

FOUR STAGES OF CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS . 1. Acetate ® Mevalonate (by three cytosolic enzymes) · Thiolase

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last enzymes in cholesterol synthesis, ..

At 1 mM, gemfibrozil decreased not only the activity of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol synthesis, but also the protein conetnt of the cells and peroxisomal enzyme activity, indicating nonspecific inhibition at this concentration.

Metabolism: lipid metabolism – ketones/cholesterol synthesis enzymes/steroid metabolism

Clofibric acid (0.25 and 1 mM) increased the activity of peroxisomal enzymes, but decreased the activity of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol synthesis.

cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes ..

Cholesterol is an essential molecule for life in higher organisms, but too much or too little can lead to disease. Its synthesis requires a complex series of reactions that involve over 20 steps, which must be tightly controlled to balance cholesterol levels. My lab has been studying neglected enzymes in cholesterol synthesis, beyond the well characterised HMG-CoA reductase, target of the blockbuster cholesterol-lowering drugs, the statins. We have been primarily focused on the novel regulation of three enzymes, Squalene Monooxygenase (SM), and the two enzymes that catalyse the alternate last enzymes in cholesterol synthesis, DHCR7 and DHCR24. Mutations in either DHCR7 or DHCR24 cause devastating developmental disorders, highlighting the essentiality of this lipid. Furthermore, we argue that DHCR7 is a switch between cholesterol and Vitamin D synthesis.

AB - The synthesis of cholesterol and its uptake from plasma LDL are regulated by two membrane-bound transcription factors, designated sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and -2 (SREBP-1 and SREBP-2). Here, we used the technique of homologous recombination to generate mice with disruptions in the gene encoding the two isoforms of SREBP-1, termed SREBP- 1a and SREBP-1c. Heterozygous gene-disrupted mice were phenotypically normal, but 5085% of the homozygous (-/-) mice died in utero at embryonic day 11. The surviving -/- mice appeared normal at birth and throughout life. Their livers expressed no functional SREBP-1. There was a 1.5-fold upregulation of SREBP- 2 at the level of mRNA and a two- to threefold increase in the amount of mature SREBP-2 in liver nuclei. Previous studies showed that SREBP-2 is much more potent than SREBP-1c, the predominant hepatic isoform of SREBP-1, in activating transcription of genes encoding enzymes of cholesterol synthesis. Consistent with this observation, the SREBP-1 -/- animals manifested elevated levels of mRNAs for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase and reductase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, and squalene synthase. Cholesterol synthesis, as measured by the incorporation of [3H]water, was elevated threefold in livers of the -/- mice, and hepatic cholesterol content was increased by 50%. Fatty acid synthesis was decreased in livers of the -/- mice. The amount of white adipose tissue was not significantly decreased, and the levels of mRNAs for lipogenic enzymes, adipocyte lipid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and leptin were normal in the -/- mice. We conclude from these studies that SREBP-2 can replace SREBP-1 in regulating cholesterol synthesis in livers of mice and that the higher potency of SREBP-2 relative to SREBP-1c leads to excessive hepatic cholesterol synthesis in these animals.

Three enzymes for cholesterol synthesis

N2 - The synthesis of cholesterol and its uptake from plasma LDL are regulated by two membrane-bound transcription factors, designated sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and -2 (SREBP-1 and SREBP-2). Here, we used the technique of homologous recombination to generate mice with disruptions in the gene encoding the two isoforms of SREBP-1, termed SREBP- 1a and SREBP-1c. Heterozygous gene-disrupted mice were phenotypically normal, but 5085% of the homozygous (-/-) mice died in utero at embryonic day 11. The surviving -/- mice appeared normal at birth and throughout life. Their livers expressed no functional SREBP-1. There was a 1.5-fold upregulation of SREBP- 2 at the level of mRNA and a two- to threefold increase in the amount of mature SREBP-2 in liver nuclei. Previous studies showed that SREBP-2 is much more potent than SREBP-1c, the predominant hepatic isoform of SREBP-1, in activating transcription of genes encoding enzymes of cholesterol synthesis. Consistent with this observation, the SREBP-1 -/- animals manifested elevated levels of mRNAs for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase and reductase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, and squalene synthase. Cholesterol synthesis, as measured by the incorporation of [3H]water, was elevated threefold in livers of the -/- mice, and hepatic cholesterol content was increased by 50%. Fatty acid synthesis was decreased in livers of the -/- mice. The amount of white adipose tissue was not significantly decreased, and the levels of mRNAs for lipogenic enzymes, adipocyte lipid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and leptin were normal in the -/- mice. We conclude from these studies that SREBP-2 can replace SREBP-1 in regulating cholesterol synthesis in livers of mice and that the higher potency of SREBP-2 relative to SREBP-1c leads to excessive hepatic cholesterol synthesis in these animals.

The synthesis of cholesterol and its uptake from plasma LDL are regulated by two membrane-bound transcription factors, designated sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and -2 (SREBP-1 and SREBP-2). Here, we used the technique of homologous recombination to generate mice with disruptions in the gene encoding the two isoforms of SREBP-1, termed SREBP- 1a and SREBP-1c. Heterozygous gene-disrupted mice were phenotypically normal, but 5085% of the homozygous (-/-) mice died in utero at embryonic day 11. The surviving -/- mice appeared normal at birth and throughout life. Their livers expressed no functional SREBP-1. There was a 1.5-fold upregulation of SREBP- 2 at the level of mRNA and a two- to threefold increase in the amount of mature SREBP-2 in liver nuclei. Previous studies showed that SREBP-2 is much more potent than SREBP-1c, the predominant hepatic isoform of SREBP-1, in activating transcription of genes encoding enzymes of cholesterol synthesis. Consistent with this observation, the SREBP-1 -/- animals manifested elevated levels of mRNAs for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase and reductase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, and squalene synthase. Cholesterol synthesis, as measured by the incorporation of [3H]water, was elevated threefold in livers of the -/- mice, and hepatic cholesterol content was increased by 50%. Fatty acid synthesis was decreased in livers of the -/- mice. The amount of white adipose tissue was not significantly decreased, and the levels of mRNAs for lipogenic enzymes, adipocyte lipid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and leptin were normal in the -/- mice. We conclude from these studies that SREBP-2 can replace SREBP-1 in regulating cholesterol synthesis in livers of mice and that the higher potency of SREBP-2 relative to SREBP-1c leads to excessive hepatic cholesterol synthesis in these animals.

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