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An understanding of the mechanisms of ester biosynthesis will ..

Biosynthesis of Phytosterol Esters: Identification of a Sterol O-Acyltransferase in Arabidopsis.

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Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

N2 - A cDNA-based microarray containing over 10,000 gene fragments was used to link changes in gene expression with changes in aroma biosynthesis in ripening apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). The microarray was probed with fluorescent-tagged cDNA derived from RNA extracted from 'Jonagold' apple skin and cortex tissue representing eight distinct physiological stages spanning 70 days during ripening and senescence. The ripening stages in chronological order, were: 1. early preclimacteric; 2. late preclimacteric and onset of trace ester biosynthesis; 3. onset of autocatalytic ethylene and rapidly increasing ester biosynthesis; 4. half-maximal ester biosynthesis and engagement of the respiratory climacteric; 5. near maximal ester biosynthesis, peak in respiratory activity, and the onset of rapid tissue softening; 6. maximal ester biosynthesis prior to its decline, the conclusion of the respiratory climacteric, and the completion of tissue softening; 7. midpoint in the decline in ester biosynthesis and maximal ethylene biosynthesis; and 8. postclimacteric minimum in ester production. Patterns in gene expression reflecting the rise and fall in ester formation were found in some putative genes for amino acid metabolism (branched-chain aminotransferase and alpha-keto acid decarboxylase), beta-oxidation (acyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and acetyl-CoA acetyl transferase), ester formation (aminotransferase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyl transferase), and fatty acid oxidation (lipoxygenase), but not fatty acid biosynthesis.

Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

AB - A cDNA-based microarray containing over 10,000 gene fragments was used to link changes in gene expression with changes in aroma biosynthesis in ripening apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). The microarray was probed with fluorescent-tagged cDNA derived from RNA extracted from 'Jonagold' apple skin and cortex tissue representing eight distinct physiological stages spanning 70 days during ripening and senescence. The ripening stages in chronological order, were: 1. early preclimacteric; 2. late preclimacteric and onset of trace ester biosynthesis; 3. onset of autocatalytic ethylene and rapidly increasing ester biosynthesis; 4. half-maximal ester biosynthesis and engagement of the respiratory climacteric; 5. near maximal ester biosynthesis, peak in respiratory activity, and the onset of rapid tissue softening; 6. maximal ester biosynthesis prior to its decline, the conclusion of the respiratory climacteric, and the completion of tissue softening; 7. midpoint in the decline in ester biosynthesis and maximal ethylene biosynthesis; and 8. postclimacteric minimum in ester production. Patterns in gene expression reflecting the rise and fall in ester formation were found in some putative genes for amino acid metabolism (branched-chain aminotransferase and alpha-keto acid decarboxylase), beta-oxidation (acyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and acetyl-CoA acetyl transferase), ester formation (aminotransferase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyl transferase), and fatty acid oxidation (lipoxygenase), but not fatty acid biosynthesis.

Arabidopsis thaliana col sinapate ester biosynthesis

Biosynthesis of sterol esters in Phycomyces blakesleeanus

It is the ester formed by condensation of benzyl alcohol and acetic acid.; It is one of many compounds that is attractive to males of various species of orchid bees, who apparently gather the chemical to synthesize pheromones; it is commonly used as bait to attract and collect these bees for study.

AB - In most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) methyl ester. The paradigm cleavage enzyme is Escherichia coli BioH which together with the BioC methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioH is absent from many bioC-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. Helicobacter pylori lacks a gene encoding a homologue of the known pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester cleavage enzymes suggesting that it encodes a novel enzyme that cleaves this intermediate. We isolated the H. pylori gene encoding this enzyme, bioV, by complementation of an E. coli bioH deletion strain. Purified BioV cleaved the physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester to pimeloyl-ACP by use of a catalytic triad, each member of which was essential for activity. The role of BioV in biotin biosynthesis was demonstrated using a reconstituted in vitro desthiobiotin synthesis system. BioV homologues seem the sole pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester esterase present in the Helicobacter species and their occurrence only in H. pylori and close relatives provide a target for development of drugs to specifically treat Helicobacter infections.

Solanum lycopersicum wax esters biosynthesis II

MetaCyc wax esters biosynthesis II

Synthesis of 2,4-D 2,4-D is commonly prepared by the condensation of 2,4-dichloro-phenol with monochloroacetic acid in a strongly alkaline medium atmoderate temperatures or by the chlorination of phenoxyacetic acid, butthis method leads to a product with a high content of 2,4-dichloro-phenol and other impurities.

Isolation of mutants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus deficient in wax ester synthesis and complementation of one mutation with a gene encoding a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase [J].

Wax ester biosynthesis is carried out by several of unrelated acyltransferase
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  • Synthesis of thioesters and thioacids

    Biosynthesis of acetate esters by dominate strains, isolated from Chinese traditional fermented fish (Suan yu)

  • Rapid ester biosynthesis screening reveals a high …

    Pathway Summary from MetaCyc: Wax ester biosynthesis is carried out by several of unrelated acyltransferase

  • FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE VOLATILE ESTER BIOSYNTHESIS …

    Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

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Engineering Medium Chain Volatile Ester Biosynthesis …

In most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) methyl ester. The paradigm cleavage enzyme is Escherichia coli BioH which together with the BioC methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioH is absent from many bioC-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. Helicobacter pylori lacks a gene encoding a homologue of the known pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester cleavage enzymes suggesting that it encodes a novel enzyme that cleaves this intermediate. We isolated the H. pylori gene encoding this enzyme, bioV, by complementation of an E. coli bioH deletion strain. Purified BioV cleaved the physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester to pimeloyl-ACP by use of a catalytic triad, each member of which was essential for activity. The role of BioV in biotin biosynthesis was demonstrated using a reconstituted in vitro desthiobiotin synthesis system. BioV homologues seem the sole pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester esterase present in the Helicobacter species and their occurrence only in H. pylori and close relatives provide a target for development of drugs to specifically treat Helicobacter infections.

Ester biosynthesis in Rome apples subjected to low …

N2 - In most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) methyl ester. The paradigm cleavage enzyme is Escherichia coli BioH which together with the BioC methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioH is absent from many bioC-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. Helicobacter pylori lacks a gene encoding a homologue of the known pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester cleavage enzymes suggesting that it encodes a novel enzyme that cleaves this intermediate. We isolated the H. pylori gene encoding this enzyme, bioV, by complementation of an E. coli bioH deletion strain. Purified BioV cleaved the physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester to pimeloyl-ACP by use of a catalytic triad, each member of which was essential for activity. The role of BioV in biotin biosynthesis was demonstrated using a reconstituted in vitro desthiobiotin synthesis system. BioV homologues seem the sole pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester esterase present in the Helicobacter species and their occurrence only in H. pylori and close relatives provide a target for development of drugs to specifically treat Helicobacter infections.

Biosynthesis of a Mono-CoA Ester from Octadecane-1, …

A cDNA-based microarray containing over 10,000 gene fragments was used to link changes in gene expression with changes in aroma biosynthesis in ripening apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). The microarray was probed with fluorescent-tagged cDNA derived from RNA extracted from 'Jonagold' apple skin and cortex tissue representing eight distinct physiological stages spanning 70 days during ripening and senescence. The ripening stages in chronological order, were: 1. early preclimacteric; 2. late preclimacteric and onset of trace ester biosynthesis; 3. onset of autocatalytic ethylene and rapidly increasing ester biosynthesis; 4. half-maximal ester biosynthesis and engagement of the respiratory climacteric; 5. near maximal ester biosynthesis, peak in respiratory activity, and the onset of rapid tissue softening; 6. maximal ester biosynthesis prior to its decline, the conclusion of the respiratory climacteric, and the completion of tissue softening; 7. midpoint in the decline in ester biosynthesis and maximal ethylene biosynthesis; and 8. postclimacteric minimum in ester production. Patterns in gene expression reflecting the rise and fall in ester formation were found in some putative genes for amino acid metabolism (branched-chain aminotransferase and alpha-keto acid decarboxylase), beta-oxidation (acyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and acetyl-CoA acetyl transferase), ester formation (aminotransferase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyl transferase), and fatty acid oxidation (lipoxygenase), but not fatty acid biosynthesis.

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