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Estrogen biosynthesis - Pathway maps

The Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis Pathway as a Target for Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals ..

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Pathway Commons::estrogen biosynthesis

Insulin binds to the extracellular parts of IRS1. This causes it to undergotyrosine phosphorylation. This causes the receptor to become a docking proteinfor p85. The docked p85 then recruits p110 to assemble a full active PI3Kcomplex (which is activated p85 and p110). Active PI3K then phosphorylatesPI 3,4-disphosphate (PIP2) into PI 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) in the cell. PIP3recruits both PDK1 and AKT/PKB into the cell membrane. This activates PDK1 andenables it to phosphorylate AKT. That much is understood. This then supposedlyactivates GSK3 and this directs Glycogen synthase to convert UDPGlucose toGlycogen. The whole pathway is not fully understood yet. It is very difficult tocure a biochemical problem that is not understood. Here are some almostcomprehensible diagrams explaining man's latest understandings of the insulinsignalling pathway.

Genes in Estrogen Metabolism Pathway and Breast Cancer

Previous studies have indicated that adipose tissueis not only an energy-storing organ, but also secretes variouscytokines. Leptin is an adipocytokine that is predominantlyproduced in white adipose tissue. Circulating leptin levels areproportional to the quantity of body fat (). The adipokine leptin has emerged asa significant factor involved in bone metabolism. Leptin acts onthe peripheral and central nervous systems in order to regulatebone metabolism (). To date,experimental animal studies investigating the impact of leptin onthe skeleton have produced conflicting results. Turner () investigated the effects ofleptin deficiency on bone metabolism. The results demonstrated thatin comparison with wild-type (WT) mice, leptin-deficient (ob/ob)mice and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice had a lower rate ofbone formation and a reduced osteoblast-lined perimeter. However,subcutaneous replacement of leptin in ob/ob mice resulted in anincrease in bone formation, along with an increasedosteoblast-lined perimeter ().In addition, the authors utilized gene therapy in order toselectively increase leptin levels in the hypothalami of ob/obmice. This resulted in normalization of the mouse bone mass, inaccordance with the results obtained using subcutaneousadministration of the hormone (). The leptin replacement studydemonstrated no difference between the indirect central and directperipheral actions of leptin on bone metabolism, as peripherallyadministered leptin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Theperipheral and central pathways involving leptin exert a positiveeffect on bone metabolism ().

KEGG PATHWAY: Steroid hormone biosynthesis - Reference pathway

04/06/2009 · Estrogen signaling pathway and its imaging in human breast cancer

This article is going to investigate some of the basic steroidal hormones, the pathways they inhabit and problems that can interfere with their utilization. There are 5 classes of steroidal hormones: glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, androgens, estrogens and progestagens. The steroidal hormones have regulatory functions in major parts of the body, including: immune function, inflammatory processes, metabolic processes, fluid dynamics and sexual functions and characteristics.

Once pregnenolone is synthesized, it is then converted into other hormones, which unveils the breadth of the steroidal hormones and their pathways. The chart below illustrates the major steroidal hormones and the pathways.

Steroid hormone biosynthesis - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu ..

Results Of the 108 SNPs in steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway related ..

N2 - 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), an inducer of antioxidant and phase 2 genes, is known to enhance the detoxification of environmental carcinogens, prevent neoplasia, and elicit other protective effects. However, a comprehensive view of the regulatory pathways induced by this compound has not yet been elaborated. Fischer F344 rats were gavaged daily for 5 days with vehicle or D3T (0.3 mmol/kg). The global changes of gene expression in liver were measured with Affymetrix RG-U34A chips. With the use of functional class scoring, a semi-supervised method exploring both the expression pattern and the functional annotation of the genes, the Gene Ontology classes were ranked according to the significance of the impact of D3T treatment. Two unexpected functional classes were identified for the D3T treatment, cytosolic ribosome constituents with 90% of those genes increased, and cholesterol biosynthesis with 91% of the genes repressed. In another novel approach, the differentially expressed genes were evaluated by the Ingenuity computational pathway analysis tool to identify specific regulatory networks and canonical pathways responsive to D3T treatment. In addition to the known glutathione metabolism pathway (P = 0.0011), several other significant pathways were also revealed, including antigen presentation (P = 0.000476), androgen/estrogen biosynthesis (P = 0.000551), fatty acid (P = 0.000216), and tryptophan metabolism (P = 0.000331) pathways. These findings showed a profound impact of D3T on lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory/ immune-suppressive response, indicating a broader cytoprotective effect of this compound than previously expected.

AB - 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), an inducer of antioxidant and phase 2 genes, is known to enhance the detoxification of environmental carcinogens, prevent neoplasia, and elicit other protective effects. However, a comprehensive view of the regulatory pathways induced by this compound has not yet been elaborated. Fischer F344 rats were gavaged daily for 5 days with vehicle or D3T (0.3 mmol/kg). The global changes of gene expression in liver were measured with Affymetrix RG-U34A chips. With the use of functional class scoring, a semi-supervised method exploring both the expression pattern and the functional annotation of the genes, the Gene Ontology classes were ranked according to the significance of the impact of D3T treatment. Two unexpected functional classes were identified for the D3T treatment, cytosolic ribosome constituents with 90% of those genes increased, and cholesterol biosynthesis with 91% of the genes repressed. In another novel approach, the differentially expressed genes were evaluated by the Ingenuity computational pathway analysis tool to identify specific regulatory networks and canonical pathways responsive to D3T treatment. In addition to the known glutathione metabolism pathway (P = 0.0011), several other significant pathways were also revealed, including antigen presentation (P = 0.000476), androgen/estrogen biosynthesis (P = 0.000551), fatty acid (P = 0.000216), and tryptophan metabolism (P = 0.000331) pathways. These findings showed a profound impact of D3T on lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory/ immune-suppressive response, indicating a broader cytoprotective effect of this compound than previously expected.

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  • Estrogen Pathway | Estrogen | Estradiol

    Pathway: estrogen biosynthesis

  • Estrogen Pathway - Download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) ..

    A positive feedback pathway of estrogen biosynthesis in breast cancer cells is contained by resveratrol.

  • Cholesterol biosynthesis pathway as a novel mechanism …

    Wet-lab validated real-time PCR primer assays for your biological pathway of interest

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Trends in Molecular Medicine All ..

Estrogen is essential for the maintenance of bone health in both men and women (). Estrogen deficiency is associated with increased bone turnover, resulting in reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. One of the key roles of estrogen is to modulate osteoclast survival, revealed by a loss of osteoclast apoptosis in osteoclast-specific estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) conditional knockout mice (). In addition, estrogen inhibits osteoclast formation through the upregulation of osteoprotegerin production (). Therefore, the mutation or ablation of genes in the pathway related to estrogen synthesis causes a disruption of bone homeostasis. For example, a mutation of the ER-α gene in males can lead to osteopenia and even osteoporosis (). Mutations of the aromatase gene result in unfused epiphyses and osteoporosis in males, and aromatase-deficient mice exhibit osteoporosis ().

Pathway 3: estrogen can also exert ..

Recent studies revealed that Runx2 is involved in the estrogen pathway through interactions with ER-α () or as a downstream target gene of estrogen or SERM (, ). Furthermore, Runx2 was recently shown to control the expression of GPR30/GPER, which represents a nongenomic cell surface receptor for estrogen that is essential for osteoblast proliferation in cell culture (). Although accumulating evidence implicates a functional association of Runx2 with estrogen signaling (, , , ), Runx2 has not been directly shown to control estrogen biosynthesis. Aromatase is a rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of testosterone into estrogen and plays a pivotal role in estrogen synthesis. Hence, in the present study, we addressed a possible functional link between aromatase and Runx2. We found that Runx2 increases aromatase gene expression, establishing the functional involvement of Runx2 in the estrogen biosynthesis pathway.

Protein Lounge: Biosynthesis of Progesterone

(ii) Male hormone testosterone is formed from pregnenolone by two pathways, delta5 pathway via dehydroepiandrosterone and delta4 pathway via androstenedione [MD:].

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