Students should have a basic idea of protein synthesis.
29/04/2010 · Choose the answer that has these events of protein synthesis in the proper sequence
All steps of protein synthesis ..
This code determines the type of amino acids and the order in which they are joined together to make a specific protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its structure and function.
"Imagine you know there is an average BT value, for example 1, which can be used conventionally when describing the system. In actual fact, however, each time we observe the process the value may be 1.1, 0.9, 0.7, 1.3 and so on. The value assumed each time by the BT changes in a stochastic, though not completely random, manner because it distributes into a cloud with a specific shape around the mean", continues Lombardo. "The shape of this cloud is not indifferent, as it has an effect on the time needed for process of protein synthesis. What we found in our study is that the BT fluctuates more (i.e., the cloud is more spread out) than previously thought and consequently so does the time needed for protein translation".
Protein synthesis and the element of chance -- ScienceDaily
Promoter sequences for RNA polymerase II are diverse. We can divide theseinto two classes: those that are found in genes that produce proteins atabout the same rate in all cells ( "constitutive enzymes") and those for genes whose production rates vary greatly from one cell type toanother and depend upon the needs of a differentiated cell at a given time("inducible enzymes").
Chain elongation proceeds in the 5'--> 3' direction, and the"transcription bubble" (the length of "melted" DNA) travelswith the RNA polymerase. As a consequence, the unmelted DNA is overwound infront of the bubble and underwound behind the bubble. Topoisomerases then act torelax the positive and negative supercoils. The mRNA that is produced ishybridized for a short length to the DNA at the downstream position, and existsseparate from the DNA as a "tail", the point of attachment being atthe downstream end. The RNA polymerase does not fall off of the DNA as it isprocessing because of its relatively tight, but nonspecific, binding on bothsides of the transcription bubble, stabilized by its "thumb" wrapping around the DNA. About 20 to 50 nucleotides are transcribed per secondat 37 C and one nucleotide is incorrectly transcribed in about every 104 . As genes are repeatedly transcribed, this error rate is not too deleterious,especially when coupled with the fact that there are multiple codons("synonyms") for each amino acid subsequently translated and thatsingle amino acid substitution errors in a protein usually do not hinder itsfunction.
Order of events in protein synthesis? | Yahoo Answers
The CCAAT Box : This is asequence that is often found upstream to the TATA box, located at about -70 to-90. These bind RNA polymerase II as well as other proteins needed forinitiation of transcription.
There are 6 GTFs that are required for a low and invariant basal rate oftranscription, and this rate can be increased by the participation of otherprotein factors. These GTFs form a "preinitiation complex" that beginswhen the "TATA binding protein" ("TBP") binds to theTATA box (if there is one) of a promoter. The specific sequence at which itbinds identifies the transcription start site. As a result of this binding, theDNA is distorted by kinks at both ends of the TATA box. Other GTFs bindsuccessively, followed by the binding of RNA polymerase. Finally, the remainingGTFs bind.
The main stages of protein synthesis are transcription and ..
Complete Information on Mechanism of Protein Synthesis …
09/06/2013 · Next . Order of events in protein synthesis?
Protein synthesis and the element of chance -- …
09/03/2009 · What is the sequence of events that happens during protein synthesis
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Place the following events in the synthesis of a protein in the proper ..
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We also have to consider an important difference between eukaryotes andprokaryotes with regard to the transcription of structural, or protein-coding,genes. In eukaryotes, the genes are transcribed individually while inprokaryotes, genes with related functions ("operons") can betranscribed together. As an example, the Lac operon includes threeprotein-encoding genes as well as their control sequences. The operon istranscribed as a single unit as a "polycistronic mRNA". Eukaryoticstructural genes are transcribed as monocistronic mRNA.
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Cells control the transcription of every gene individually. A uniquecombination of silencers and enhancers for each gene modulates the transcriptionrate. How do activator and repressor proteins that are bound far from thepromoter influence that transcription of genes?
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What is a gene? At one level, a gene is an ordered string of nucleotides thatencodes a polypeptide. Such genes are "structural" genes. We also knowthat genes can also encode RNA, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA),ribosomal RNA (rRNA) as well as other RNA types. But something has to turn onand terminate gene expression, as well as regulate it. The regulatory sequences,which may be "promoters" or "enhancers/silencers" may belocated far away from the coding regions. So now our view of a gene must includethe idea of separate regions of a chromosome. What if the information astranscribed onto mRNA doesn't reflect the final protein until it is furthermodified? This is "posttranscriptional modification". Now the conceptof a gene is becoming even cloudier. What if there are "overlapping"coding regions? Clearly our definition of a gene is not going to be a simpleone.
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Gene expression (the functional activation of genes within a cell) is a crucial process for life. An important step in this process is protein synthesis, whereby the single amino acids, the "building blocks" that make up the strand of protein, are strung together like beads on a necklace. Even though this mechanism had previously been described in detail, some "stochastic" aspects had been neglected: in the chain of events that characterizes protein synthesis there is a certain random component that influences the time it takes for the protein to be assembled. A research team at SISSA has investigated this aspect and described the process of protein translation by using a mathematical model. The study has just been published in the scientific journal .
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Proteins, in fact, are made up of long chains of amino acids, the tiny building blocks normally found dissolved in the cytoplasmic fluid. Some small RNA molecules, called tRNA and different from mRNA, bind specifically to amino acids giving rise to tRNA-amino acid complexes. These complexes then go and interlock, like the teeth of a zipper, with the chain of mRNA, one after the other into the proper sequence of amino acids, which bind to each other to form the strand of protein.
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