The Process of Photosynthesis in Plants: An Overview
The energy stored in plants through photosynthesis can also be released in other ways.
Explain the difference between C3, C4, and CAM plants
Photosynthesis occurs inside chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment found inside the thylakoid membranes. These chlorophyll molecules are arranged in groups called photosystems. There are two types of photosystems, Photosystem II and Photosystem I. When a chlorophyll molecule absorbs light, the energy from this light raises an electron within the chlorophyll molecule to a higher energy state. The chlorophyll molecule is then said to be photoactivated. Excited electron anywhere within the photosystem are then passed on from one chlorophyll molecule to the next until they reach a special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre of the photosystem. This special chlorophyll molecule then passes on the excited electron to a chain of electron carriers.
Fundamentally, most eucaryotes produce energy (ATP) through alcoholfermentation (e.g. yeast), lactic acid fermentation (e.g. muscle cells,neutrophils), aerobic respiration (e.g. molds, protozoa, animals) oroxygenicphotosynthesis (e.g. algae, plants). These modes of energy-generatingmetabolismexist among procaryotes, in addition to all the following types ofenergyproductionwhich are virtually non existent in eucaryotes.
Explain the photosynthesis process.
Photosynthesis can be measured in many ways as it involves the production of oxygen, the uptake of carbon dioxide and an increase in biomass. For example, aquatic plants release oxygen bubbles during photosynthesis and so these can be collected and measured. The uptake of carbon dioxide is more difficult to measure so it is usually done indirectly. When carbon dioxide is absorbed from water the pH of the water rises and so this can be measured with pH indicators or pH meters. Finally, photosynthesis can be measured through an increase in biomass. If batches of plants are harvested at a series of times and the biomass of these batches is calculated, the rate increase in biomass gives an indirect measure of the rate of photosynthesis in the plants.
As light intensity increases so does photosynthesis until a certain point. At a high light intensities photosynthesis reaches a plateau and so does not increase any more. At low and medium light intensity the rate of photosynthesis is directly proportional to the light intensity.
NOVA - Official Website | Illuminating Photosynthesis
A limiting factor is a factor that controls a process. Light intensity, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration are all factors which can control the rate of photosynthesis. Usually, only one of these factors will be the limiting factor in a plant at a certain time. This is the factor which is the furthest from its optimum level at a particular point in time. If we change the limiting factor the rate of photosynthesis will change but changes to the other factors will have no effect on the rate. If the levels of the limiting factor increase so that this factor is no longer the furthest from its optimum level, the limiting factor will change to the factor which is at that point in time, the furthest from its optimum level. For example, at night the limiting factor is likely to be the light intensity as this will be the furthest from its optimum level. During the day, the limiting factor is likely to switch to the temperature or the carbon dioxide concentration as the light intensity increases.
As we can see, there is a close relationship between the action spectrum and absorption spectrum of photosynthesis. There are many different types of photosynthetic pigments which will absorb light best at different wavelengths. However the most abundant photosynthetic pigment in plants is chlorophyll and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be the greatest at wavelengths of light best absorbed by chlorophyll (400nm-525nm corresponding to violet-blue light). Very little light is absorbed by chlorophyll at wavelengths of light between 525nm and 625 (green-yellow light) so the rate of photosynthesis will be the least within this range. However, there are other pigments that are able to absorb green-yellow light such as carotene. Even though these are present in small amounts they allow a low rate of photosynthesis to occur at wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot absorb.
01/01/2011 · Illuminating Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis — bozemanscience
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The light-independant reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma of the chloroplast and involve the conversion of carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. The light-independent reactions can be split into three stages, these are carbon fixation, the reduction reactions and finally the regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate. Collectively these stages are known as the Calvin Cycle.
LabBench Activity Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
Consider energy from fossil fuels.
Examples of endothermic reactions
MORE ON ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities.
IB Biology Notes - 8.2 Photosynthesis
If the light intensity is not a limiting factor, there will usually be a shortage of NADP+ as NADPH accumulates within the stroma (see light independent reaction). NADP+ is needed for the normal flow of electrons in the thylakoid membranes as it is the final electron acceptor. If NADP+ is not available then the normal flow of electrons is inhibited. However, there is an alternative pathway for ATP production in this case and it is called cyclic photophosphorylation. It begins with Photosystem I absorbing light and becoming photoactivated. The excited electrons from Photosystem I are then passed on to a chain of electron carriers between Photosystem I and II. These electrons travel along the chain of carriers back to Photosystem I and as they do so they cause the pumping of protons across the thylakoid membrane and therefore create a proton gradient. As explained previously, the protons move back across the thylakoid membrane through ATP synthase and as they do so, ATP is produced. Therefore, ATP can be produced even when there is a shortage of NADP+.
photosynthesis notes - Biology Junction
As the carbon dioxide concentration increases so does the rate of photosynthesis. There is no photosynthesis at very low levels of carbon dioxide and at high levels the rate reaches a plateau.
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