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Biosynthesis of storage fat in oil crops - today and tomorrow

" Biosynthesis of storage fat in oil crops - today and tomorrow "

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Fatty Acid Biosynthesis | Part II - YouTube

The rate of fatty acid synthesis is controlled by the equilibrium between the monomeric and polymeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Control of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme involves phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions (3). Metabolically, this conformational change is enhanced by citrate and is inhibited by long-chain fatty acids (i.e. palmitoyl-CoA). The accumulation of citrate in the cytosol of adipose cells shifts equilibrium to the polymeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thus activating fatty acid biosynthesis. Palmitoyl-CoA promotes polymer disaggregation and is a primary feedback inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis.

28/06/2017 · Fatty Acid Biosynthesis | Part II Hussain Biology

We make fatty acids as well as break them down. Fatty acids are synthesized in the cytosol. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis is not just the reverse of fatty acid degradation, although there are some interesting parallels between the two pathways.

Several of these fatty acid biosynthesis ..

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

Biosynthesis of fatty acids is strictly regulated. The primary determination of lipogenesis or lipolysis is the equilibrium between monomeric and polymeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Several hormones, including insulin, glucagon, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, the secondary messenger cAMP, as well as diet composition and nutrient manipulation all exert important regulatory action on lipid metabolism. However, the recent discovery that genetics play an integral part in determining the extent of fatty acid synthesis may prove to be the most beneficial breakthrough in the "War on Fat". Future investigations and studies of leptin and its method of transduction may unveil the mystery of fat synthesis and allow the development of pharmacological agents to prevent obesity.

Fatty acid biosynthesis
The enzymes of synthesis are located in the cytoplasm. Acetyl CoA is the source of carbon units and NADPH provides reducing equivalents. ATP is the supplier of energy. Synthesis is not the reversal of oxidation. Dimer of fatty acid synthase takes part in fatty acid synthesis. TAGs are synthesized from fatty acyl CoA and glycerol 3-phosphate or dihydroxy acetone phosphate. TAG gets deposited in adipose tissue.

Bacterial Fatty Acid Biosynthesis: Targets for Antibacterial ..

KEGG PATHWAY: Fatty acid biosynthesis - Reference ..

Lipids are digested and absorbed with the help of bile salts. Products of lipid digestion aggregate to form mixed micelles and are absorbed into the small intestine. Lipids are transported in the form of lipoproteins. Fatty acids are activated, transported across mitochondrial membrane with the help of carnitine transporter. β -oxidation of saturated fatty acids takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. Similarly oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids also take place with additional reactions. Ketone bodies are formed in the liver but they are utilized by extra hepatic tissues. In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation, excessive ketone bodies are formed, leading to ketosis. Fatty acid biosynthesis takes place in the cytosol of cells. Fat gets deposited in the adipose tissue. Acetyl Coenzyme A is the precursor of fatty acid synthesis as well as cholesterol biosynthesis. Elevation of lipids in blood leads to deposition of cholesterol plaques in the arterial walls leading to atherosclerosis. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are synthesized from twenty carbon unsaturated fatty acids. Phosphatidic acid is an important intermediate in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids. In sphingolipids, sphingosine is present as an alcohol.

Fatty acid biosynthesis occurs through the condensation of C2 units and is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP (2). The process of fatty acid synthesis involves two regulatory steps. The first step is the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA in the cytosol to form malonyl CoA (Figure 1). Catalyzed by the biotin-dependent acetyl-CoA carboxylase, an enzyme that transfers CO2 to substrates, this step is the rate-limiting step and therefore a very important site in the regulation of fat accumulation. If sufficient biotin is not available for carboxylation of acetyl-CoA, fatty acid synthesis will not occur. The second major point of regulation in fatty acid synthesis is the decarboxylation of the malonyl group, catalyzed by fatty acid synthase. The multienzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase regulates fatty acid synthesis (Figure 2).

Fatty acid biosynthesis in plants
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Biosynthesis of storage fat in oil crops - today and tomorrow

In this reaction a carboxyl group is added to acetyl CoA to generate malonyl CoA. This biotin-containing enzyme catalyzes the committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis and is subject to a complex regulation not covered in this activity.

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