Fatty acid ethyl esters: short-term ..
T1 - Synthesis of Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester from Acid Oil in a Continuous Reactor via an Enzymatic Transesterification
The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester by ..
An isomeric form of myristoleic acid was discovered in dolphin and whale head oils (Tsujimoto M, Chem Umschau 1925, 32, 202) and was proved to be the 5-tetradecenoic acid.
Furthermore, this fatty acid was also detected in a sample of fish oil concentrate.
Several very long-chain n-3 fatty acids have been isolated from a dinoflagellate , they had 22 to 36 carbon atoms and 3 to 7 double bonds ().
A new n-3 fatty acid has been described in a red alga of the genus Laurencia : tetracosa-9,12,15,18,21-pentaenoic acid in the ethyl form (Feng MT et al., Chem Nat Compounds 2015, 51, 418).
Fatty Acid ethyl ester Standard Pack | Cayman Chemical
This was confirmed by the identification of a furan fatty acid (10,13- epoxy-11-methyl octadeca-10,12 dienoic acid) esterified in latex glycoglycerolipids ().
Forty furan fatty acids were identified in a marine fish oil, two propyl-substituted molecules being reported for the first time (Wahl HG et al., J High Resol Chromatogr 1994, 17, 308).
As a furan fatty acid (10,13-epoxy-11-methyloctadeca-10, 12-dienoic acid) was detected in the cellular lipids of several marine bacteria (), the authors propose that those detected in marine fish are derived from marine plants and/or intestinal bacteria of fishes.
Two-step synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from …
Another indication for a sponge cell origin of these compounds is the majorpresence (7-15 % of the total) of -nonadecanoic acid(16-methyloctadecanoic acid), an exotic compound that has not yet been reportedas a major fatty acid in bacteria.
It has been found that is able to synthesizediso-C15 and iso-C17 and that these branched-chain fatty acids are essential forthe animal growth and development ().
The oxidation of ethanol produces acetaldehyde through the action of alcohol dehydrogenase and the cytochrome P-450 system. In the liver, where much of the alcohol is metabolized oxidatively, acetaldehyde may play a prominent role in cell injury. However, the enzymatic capacity for acetaldehyde generation is not nearly as significant in the heart as it is in the liver. This limited cardiac oxidation of ethanol has led to the hypothesis that nonoxidative ethanol metabolism is responsible for the generation of a toxic mediator responsible for ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction. In the early 1980s, it was proposed that fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), esterification products of ethanol and fatty acids, could be the mediators of ethanol-induced cell injury in the heart. It was demonstrated that purified FAEEs in emulsions can disrupt oxidative phosphorylation in isolated mitochondria from the heart, and an enzyme known as FAEE synthase was subsequently purified from rabbit heart. We hypothesized that FAEEs are generated rapidly in cardiac tissue in amounts that could produce cytotoxicity and thereby may be the mediators of myocardial necrosis with ethanol-induced ablation. The purpose of this study was to assess the in vivo production of FAEEs by myocardial tissue in a modified ethanol ablation procedure in pigs.
Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis in the preparation of scotch whiskey
Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis by the isolated perfused rat heart.
KW - Fatty acid ethyl ester
Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters–Alcohol’s Henchmen in the …
The Fatty Acid ethyl ester Standard pack contains a series of nine fatty acid ethyl esters
Chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters …
Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), esterification products of fatty acid and ethanol, ..
An unsaturated fatty acid ethyl ester
Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, have been implicated in ethanol-induced heart injury. To assess the in vivo production of FAEEs by myocardial tissue, we used a modified ethanol ablation procedure in pigs. A controlled 60-minute ethanol infusion was administered into the distal left anterior descending coronary artery in seven swine; serial blood sampling of the coronary sinus and peripheral vein before, during, and after infusion allowed measurement of FAEE production and ethanol levels in the coronary sinus and the peripheral circulation. In a single animal, FAEEs were also quantified from nine different sites within the myocardium. FAEEs were produced by the heart within 5 minutes of exposure to ethanol, with very high concentrations of FAEEs detected in coronary sinus blood. Significant variability in amounts of FAEEs was detected in different regions of the heart tissue. A strong correlation was found between coronary sinus FAEEs and ethanol concentration (r = 0.9241, P
Fish Oils as Triglycerides vs. Ethyl Esters | Ascenta Health
Fatty acid butyl esters were synthesized from sunflower oil with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase in a biphasic organic (triglyceride, 1-butanol, hexane)– water (with enzyme) system in a continuous setup consisting of a cascade of a stirred tank reactor and a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS), the latter being used for integrated reaction and liquid–liquid separation. A fatty acid butyl ester yield up to 93% was obtained in the cascade when operated in a once-through mode. The cascade was run for 8 h without operational issues. Enzyme recycling was studied by reintroduction of the water phase from the CCCS outlet to the stirred tank reactor. Product yield decreased over time to an average of 50% of the initial value, likely due to accumulation of 1-butanol in water phase, loss of enzyme due to agglomeration, and the formation of a separate enzyme layer.
Fatty-acyl-ethyl-ester synthase - Wikipedia
AB - Synthesis of a fatty acid ethyl ester via the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of acid oil and ethanol was investigated in a continuous reactor. Lipozyme TL IM was employed as the immobilized lipase. This immobilized lipase derived from Thermomyces lanuginosus was purchased from Novozymes (Seoul, Korea). The acid oil was prepared by the acidification of soapstock formed as a by-product during the refining of rice bran oil. The parameters investigated were water content, temperature, and molar ratio of substrates. The relative activity of Lipozyme TL IM was assessed during the repeated use of the immobilized lipase. The water content of the substrate had a considerable effect on the yield and the optimum water content was 4 %. The optimum temperature and molar ratio of acid oil to ethanol were 20 °C and 1:4, respectively. The maximum yield of approximately 92 % was achieved under the optimum conditions. The corresponding compositions were 92 % fatty acid ethyl esters, 3 % fatty acids, and 5 % acylglycerols. When glycerol formed during the reaction was removed by intermittent washing with ethanol, the relative activity of lipase was maintained over 82 % for a total usage of 27 cycles. For a mean residence time of 4 h, the half-life times of Lipozyme TL IM on the control (unwashed) and treatment (washed) were 39 and 45 cycles, respectively.
In enzymology, a fatty-acyl-ethyl-ester synthase ..
These fatty acids may be of value for the knowledge of biomass and of the metabolic status of the viable microbial community.
A novel dimethylated fatty acid, 12,17-dimethyloctadecanoic acid, has been described in high concentration (16.3 % of total fatty acids) in an extremophile bacteria, sp (Vyssotski M et al., Lipids 2012, 47, 601).
Multimethyl branched acids are abundant in cell wall lipids of Mycobacteria, each methyl group being on even carbon atoms (2,4,6,8...from the methyl end). Thus, forming and glycolipids (), several multibranched fatty acids are commonly found :
- mycolipanolic acid (2,4,6-trimethyltetracosanoic acid).
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